Advances of Technology Yongje

Weapons

One of the most significant events that happened during the Middle Ages was that there were advanced machineries. Countless wars and churches were built and occurred during it and the technology gradually improved during the way. All of the weapons used during wars are the result of the improved technology. Some examples are: Siege towers, mantlets, trebuchets, battering ram and mangonels. This picture shows the usage of each weapons to invade the castle during the middle ages.

This is a picture of a siege war between countries. The siege tower is located next to the castle and mantlets were placed in front of the soldiers for protection.

The Siege tower, also known as breaching tower is the wooden tower located next to the castle that carries soldiers and supplies that can invade the castle. It has a platform on top of it which can be lowered like a drawbridge. This machine was invented to protect soldiers from arrows while approaching the castle. The tower is often rectangular with 4 wheels and made from flammable materials so they were sometimes covered in steel sheets to get protection from fire arrows. Siege towers were first used by the Neo-Assyrian Empire in the 9th century under Ashurnasirpal II and he also used battle rams for breaking down castle gates. About 200 to 250 soldiers can be operated from a single tower, and in some rare cases, siege towers were placed on ships to cross the rivers just outside of the city walls.

Mantlets are large portable shields that are used to block projectiles during the middle ages. They were easily caught on fire and had wheels, which meant that the soldiers had to move them by themselves. The soldier operating the mantlet would hold on the the spreader bar that is located at the center and use it to push or pull the mantlet during war. In some incidents, the mantlets had spikes at the bottom for some close range techniques.

This was a type of mantlet used during the middle ages. It had wheels for efficient movement and bars in the center so that it can be moved.

Trebuchet was a machine/weapon used during the middle ages in a siege warfare. Trebuchets were valuable weapon that slung large, heavy stones to the castle wall to break them down into pieces. The word originates from an old french word "Trebucher" which means to throw over. The engine of the Trebuchet was first invented in 300 BC in ancient China. It was introduced to Europe during the middle ages and were used extensively by the French. It was composed of mainly the lever and the sling and it was capable to throw about 2000 stones a day. Not only stones were thrown towards the castle but many other things like: sharp wooden darts, fire, burning tar, burning sand, greek fire, dung, dead and infected bodies and animals. Burning sand were trapped inside the armor which eventually lead them to death.

This is a picture of a trebuchet. It launched stones with engines developed in the middle ages. It was one of the main weapons that were used during a siege war.
This is the map during the high middle age. The Holy Roman Empire in pink overing the present day Germany. The Byzantium Empire is in Yellow and it is covering present day Turkey.

Architecture

Architecture was definitely one of the things that can be developed with the technology. People lived in caves during the stone ages because they didn't have the technology to build a house to live in. Many churches and castles were built during the middle ages and there were frequent wars. Medieval architectures can be divided into 2 types which are: Religious architecture and Military architecture

This is a picture of architecture during the middle ages. These architectures were built from large stone and took about a century to finish it.

Religious architecture was a important part in the middle ages. The more splendid the architecture, the more church believed that it was praising god.Churches of different countries poured their money into the creation of religious architectures that are still spotted today, in the 21st century. Many of the cathedrals were built over a 100 years and some even lasted for half a millennium. The start of the architecture began in the reign of William the conqueror for England. Cathedrals were the biggest building spotted that time and Norman architects influenced the styles of these cathedrals. Normans used large stone and cut them into artworks with limited tools such as hammers and axes. The Normans were ordered to build the cathedrals because the Saxons didn't have skilled architects during the middle ages

This is one of the cathedrals built during the middle ages. It took over a century to build this and was one of the largest buildings during that time.

Military architecture were architecture used for protection from sieges. Most middle age fortifications used different kinds of architecture to improve their defense. In some cases, they used their unique design to adapt to their surroundings.

  • Tower - this was usually shaped like a cylinder and were located on the outer wall of the castle. It served as lookout posts and firing position for archers. In some cases, it was used as prisons and storehouses.
  • Moat - deep trench that is usually filled with water outside the castle walls for fortification. It also acted as a sewerage. Droughts sometimes forced architects to design dry moats.
  • Portcullis - it was a heavy iron door that dropped vertically to protect the entrance of the castle. It can be made from different materials, but it was commonly made out of oak and was coated with iron. There were spike on the bottom and it was raised with a help of pulleys, rope and counter weights. When the castle was under attack, the guards smashed the release latch with a sledge hammer and it would quickly shut down.
  • Drawbridge - movable bridge that associated with the entrance of a castle which was surrounded by a moat. It was lifted during a siege for protection.
  • Gatehouse - It was the living quarters for soldiers and were several stories high. It contained the devices that were used to control the portcullises.(release latch)
  • Bailey and Motte - The first proper castles built in England were the Motte and Bailey castles. Bailey was the area where followers of the Lord lived. It included stables, storehouses, bakeries, kitchens, houses, and quarters for soldiers. Motte was a mound forming the site of a castle. It was so steep that it was impossible to run up and there was a deep ditch around the bottom of the Motte. At the top of the Motte was the keep. Most castles present today were based off of Bailey and Motte castles.
  • Keep - a tower which was on top of the Motte and was used as a last resort when the castle walls fell and broke down.
  • Curtain Wall - defensive walls enclosing a Bailey and it was high and thick enough so that it was difficult to be climbed with ladders and could withstand bombardment from siege weapons
  • Archer's stake - anti-cavalry defense used by longbowmen.
  • Arrowslits - thin vertical aperture in the castle where the archer can shoot arrows.
This is a reconstruction model of a castle in the middle ages. The motte is the large hill and Bailey is the area with houses. The keep is located on top of the Motte and moats surrounded the castle walls

Citations

  • "Siege Tower." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, n.d. Web. 07 Feb. 2017.
  • "Trebuchet." Trebuchet. N.p., n.d. Web. 07 Feb. 2017.
  • "Medieval Architecture." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, n.d. Web. 07 Feb. 2017.
  • "Medieval Church Architecture." History Learning Site. N.p., n.d. Web. 07 Feb. 2017.
  • Cushman, Tyler. "Medieval Military Architecture." Prezi.com. N.p., 12 Apr. 2016. Web. 07 Feb. 2017.
  • "Moat." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, n.d. Web. 07 Feb. 2017.
  • "Castle Learning Center Portcullis." Castle Learning Center Portcullis. N.p., n.d. Web. 07 Feb. 2017.
  • "Motte and Bailey Castles - First Castles." Motte and Bailey Castles - First Castles. N.p., n.d. Web. 07 Feb. 2017.
  • "Keep." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, n.d. Web. 07 Feb. 2017.
  • Bingham, Jane, and Fiona Chandler. Medieval World. London: Usborne, 1999. Print.
  • Beck, Roger B. Ancient World History: Patterns of Interaction. Evanston, IL: McDougal Littell, 2005. Print.

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