Spain- The Ancient Pit Stop
-The Ancient Pit Stop is situado in the océano Atlántico and mar Mediterráneo. It is a place to get food, and get healthy.
-It is also a place to trade Materiales such as silver and iron.
-The pit stop was a great place to live and everyone wanted it because it was a holy land.
-When the celtas went to invade they didn't have to do it with lots of armor and Armas because not many people live there.
-The problem was that people were there. It was formado the first actual civilization in Spain.
-The Celtiberos were intermingling of the Celtas and the Libros. Iberian Peninsula name came from these people.
-Galicia still has influencias of Celtic culture (Bagpipes and Language).
The Romans are Coming!!
-Holy Roman Empire is growing and growing.
-People decidido that Rome wasn't big enough to conquer, so they went out of Rome and kept going west into Italy until they couldn't go west anymore.
-Eventually Rome weakens and soon collapses. This now leaves it as a fair game for the next group of people.
A Different Type of Goth
- While Rome is Desmoronándose, another group of people invade Europe. (Germanic Visigoths).
-The Germanic Visigoths were good at taking advantage of a debilidad, they poblado spain.
Please Sir, Can I have some Moors?
-In 711 A.D. the last group of invaders come out of Africa.
-Arabs, Berbers, and Syrians from North Africa Invadido the peninsula in 711 A.D. They easily defeated the Visigoth kingdoms conquering nearly all of the península.
-Almost continual lucha between the christian kingdoms to the north of Spain and Muslims from the South of Spain.
-Closet Religion is when someone is one religion in the public eye and another religion when they are at home.
-EXAMPLE: christianity (public) and Muslim (at home)
Patron Saint of Spain
-Santiago, also known as Matamoros (matar means to kill and moros means muslim.)
-He would go into battle gritando "Matamoros"
-He was a mártir because he Creía that he was doing God's word by getting rid of people that didn't believe.
Toledo the City of Tolerance
-Jews, Christians, and Muslims could go here and not be Perseguido for their religion. Today you can go there and see influences such as synagogues, churches, cathedrals, and Arab style arquitectura (Mudejar)
-He was the hero of the reconquista. El Cid was known as Spain's national hero.
-Moors had divided into many small kingdoms. There was so much battling that they are divided into tiny little kingdoms.
-The last moorish king in Grenada, was defeated in January of 1492. Now spain is sort of Catholic.
-There was now nobody to rule over Spain, to make sure it's Catholic. If there is no one to hacer cumplir the rule of the Catholic faith, you can basically profess whatever you want to.
- Catholic kings were very rich and they were also self fijado.
-The queen was actually the one that did everything! No troops would be able to go to war if the queen didn't. The king's were often very lazy and just sat down.
-Fernando of Aragon and Isabel of Castilla got married in 1469. Their main goal was to unir the Christian kingdoms against the moors. They Solidificado their powers through their religion. Their military success ended the reconquista by them defeating the moors in Granada in 1492. Up until this point there was no Spain.
The Spanish Inquisition
Pope Innocent the Fourth
-Torture wouldn't have been allowed if he wasn't the papa at the time...
Gold Diggers (not what you think)
-Someone who marries another person for power (not for the money)
-Juana, the daughter of Fernando and Isabel married Felipe of the powerful Habsburg family. She becomes known as the crazy (la loca) because all the dinero drives her insano.
-1516-1556: He was the son of Juana La Loca ad Felipe el guapo. He came up with the idea that he was the king and he could do whatever he wanted. Under his rule, the spanish empire grew.
-"with the power of the pope I am now the Holy Roman Emperor too"
-He had another idea: he changed his personality everywhere he went. EXAMPLE: Charles V, he changed his name of Austria/Germany. Under his rule, Spanish Empire grew rapidly----> Conquistas of Incas, Aztecs
EXTRA: CHARLES V CONTINUED
-Gold and silver flooded into Spain from Americas, along with new crops: corn, potatoes, and fruits
-Carlos V used the funds that were pouring in from the colonies to subsidize the many religions wars he was fighting across Europe. Instead of using his money to help Spain flourish and help the poor in spain with all of the money that he was getting in he decided to use it towards war.
-Spain, under Carlos V, became one of the staunchest (strongest) defenders of catholicism as it fought to stop the spread of the protestant reformation across europe.
-He pass on the legacy to his successor, his son Felipe
Felipe II:family feud
-The war against protestants was continued. In 1554, Felipe II married Mary Tudor of England in an attempt to create an international Catholic alliance. A male heir from this marriage would have become King of England, however there was no son and the protestant Elizabeth I came to power in England. He said that if he marries her and he becomes King and they have a baby, they said that then the boy will be catholic because the man is catholic and then that would be uniting catholics... but they had a daughter.
-Annexed Portugal, the Dutch declare independence from Spain: starts war involving England. They send 500 ships to England and 0 return England destroyed all of spain with their 200 ships
-1588: Spain’s invincible Armada was defeated by England. England had the idea to trash Spain. Their goal was to get people to stop traveling to Spain. They trashed Spain saying that the King and Queen eat babies (ect.)
El Greco (the greek)
-Also known as the greek. His real name was Domenikos Theotokopoulos and he was a greek painter who traveled to spain in search of work in the decoration of El Escorial. He wanted to paint the palace that the king lived in; he thought that it would work out and that he would get all of the food and riches. Felipe hated his style and refused to hire him. (he basically gave up his whole life to then get turned down by the king)
-As a result, he moved to Toledo and hit it big. He made money by painting photos that made fun of Felipe. The most famous piece he has painted was Vista De Toledo. No One could tell that he was actually making fun of the king... unless you knew his intentions. The message he was trying to say was that Felipe only cared about himself; eventually Spain was going to get destroyed for that reason.
More Habsburg Kings
-Competent rulers, but more concerned with life at court then they were about the general public.
-People who thought that once they came into power, Spain would get out of the problem because they kind of know what they are doing but... they didn't care about you if you were not rich or didn't have a job in the court.
-Efforts to convert Spain into a modern state, based on Neoclassical ideas of the Enlightenment.
-He was the grandson of Felipe V and the son of Carlos III; total incompetence.
-Dealing with Napoleon leads to the use of lots of dynamite