RIVALRY in the northwest
- In the early 1800s, four nations claimed the vast, rugged land known as the Oregon Country.
- The Untied States based its claim on Robert Gray's discovery of the Columbia River in 1792 and the Lewis and Clark expedition.
- In 1819 Secretary of State John Quincy Adams got Spain to approve the Adams-Onis Treaty.
- In 1818 Adams worked out an agreement with Britain for joint occupation, this meant that people from both the US and Great Britain could settle there. When Adams had become president in 1825, he proposed that the two nations divide Oregon along the 49 degrees N line of latitude, Britain refused and they extended the joint occupation.
Mountain men in oregon.
- Fur traders had been the first Americans to take up the challenge of living in the Oregon Country.
- At first the fur merchants traded with the Native Americans.
- Over time, the mountain men could no longer make a living by trapping.
Question--- What did America gain from the Adams-Onis Treaty?
America gained the land of Florida.
oregon and manifest destiny- marcus and narcissa whitman
- Among the first settlers were Dr. Marcus Whitman and his wife Narcissa, they were missionaries who went to Oregon in 1836 and built a mission among the Cayuse people near the present site of Walla Walla, Washington.
- The new settlers unknowingly brought measles to the mission, Native Americans had never been exposed to this disease, and epidemic killed many of the Cayuse children.
Along the oregon trail
- The Whitman massacre was a shocking event, but it did little to stop the flood of pioneers on their way to Oregon.
- In 1843 about a thousand emigrants made the journey.
- Before the journey, these pioneers packed all their belongings into canvas-covered wagons with supplies.
America seeks its manifest destiny
- Since colonial times, many Americans had believed their nation's mission should be to serve as a model for freedom and democracy.
- Many believed that the nation's mission was to spread freedom by settling the entire continent.
- In the 1840s, New York newspaper editor John O'Sullivan expressed in more specific words the idea national mission.
Fifty-four forty or fight
- Many Americans wanted the United States take over all of Oregon.
- Polk's Whig opponent, Henry Clay, did not take a strong position on the Oregon issue.
- A firm believer in Manifest Destiny, Polk was focused on acquiring Oregon.
How did Polk's views differ from Clay's in the 1844 election?
James K. Polk had supported acquiring Oregon while Henry Clay did not.
Statehood for Florida and Texas-How did Florida become a state?
Under the Northwest Ordinance of 1787.
- When Spain transferred Florida to the United States on July 17, 1821, Florida became and American territory.
- Tallahassee became the territorial capital in 1824.
- Many planters from Virginia, Georgia, and the Carolinas had worn out their soils with years of heavy use.
the territory grows
- In 1837 the census for the territory of Florida reported that 48,000 people lived there.
- Florida voters chose 56 people to attend the constitutional convention in St. Joseph, a small port city on the Gulf Coast.
statehood of florida
- Iowa finally emerged as a free state candidate, with the question of slavery removed, President John Tyler signed the Florida statehood bill.
- In 1821 Mexico won independence from Spain.
- At first, Mexico encouraged Americans to settle in Texas.
- In 1835 the conflict grew violent. Mexican General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna took an army into Texas to punish the rebels.
- The Texans had only about 180 soldiers to take on Santa Anna's army of several thousand.
- For 13 long days, through several attacks, the defenders of the Alamo kept Santa Anna's army at bay with rifle fire.
- The Mexican army was too large to hold back. They entered the fortress, killing all the defenders including Travis, Crockett, Bowie and a number of Tejanos.
Texas declares its independence
- During the siege at the Alamo, Texan leaders met at at the town of Washington-on-the-Brazos.
- Texan leaders set up a temporary government.
the lone star republic
- In September 1836, Texans elected Sam Houston as their president.
- Andrew Jackson, however, refused their request of taking over Texas.
texas becomes a state
- Many Texans wanted to join the United States.
- The situation changed with the 1844 presidential campaign.
Why did it take a long time for the United States to annex Texas?
Because Martin Van Buren didn't want there to be any inflammation between the Mexicans and them.
How did the Santa fe Trail benefit the New Mexico Territory?
Because it started trade routes between America and New Mexico.
the new mexico territory
- In the early 1800s the land called New Mexico was a vast region between the Texas and California territories.
- Mexico--including New Mexico--won its independence from Spain in 1821.
- William Becknell, the first American trader to reach Santa Fe, arrived , arrived in 1821.
How did William Becknell influence the American settlement of New Mexico?
By trading with both of them and making trade routes.
california's spanish culture.
- Spanish explorers and missionaries from Mexico settled California in the 1700s.
- The missions aimed to convert Native Americans to Christianity and the Spanish way of life.
- President James K. Polk was determined to get the California and New Mexico territories from Mexico.
- Relations between the two countries were not friendly with each other.
a war plan
- Polk planned to defeat Mexico by accomplishing three goal. First, the United States would drive Mexican forces out of Texas, second, it would seize New Mexico and California. Finally, American forces would advance into Mexico and capture the capital, Mexico City.
- By 1847, Zachary Taylor had accomplished the first goal.
- Even before war with Mexico officially began, American settlers in northern California had begun an uprising.
- The Bear Flag Republic did not exist for long.
- Defeated on February 2, 1848, Mexico's leaders signed the Treay of Guadalupe Hidalgo.
- With Oregon and the former Mexican territories under the American flag, the dream of Manifest Destiny had been realized.
What did America gain from the Mexican War?
They gained the land of California and New Mexico.
california and utah--
How did the discovery of gold help California?
It helped California by more people moving there and creating towns and building houses, hotels, restaurants, ect..
california gold rush
- When gold was discovered at Sutter's Mill in 1848, people from all over the traveled to California in search of riches.
- Americans made up about 80 percent of the forty-niners.
- The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo ended the war with Mexico and made Californios--Mexicans living in California--citizens of the United States.
The life of a forty-niner
- As people rushed to a new area to look for gold, they built new communities, towns and small cities appeared almost overnight.
- Cities also flourished during the Gold Rush, as shops arrived daily with gold seekers, San Francisco became a boomtown, growing quickly from a tiny village to a city of about 20,000 people.
Gold rush society
- Mining camps contained men of all backgrounds but few women, lonely and suffering hardships, many men spent their free hours drinking, gambling, and fighting.
economic and political progress
- The Gold Rush had lasting effects on California, agriculture, shipping, and trade grew to meet the demand for food and other goods.
How did the California Gold Rush lead to the expansion of cities?
People came and started building more houses so they could live there while they were looking for gold.
a religious refuge in Utah
- While the Gold Rush was transforming California, change was also taking place in nearby Utah. There, Mormons, or members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints were building a new community and fulfilling their version of the godly life.
the mormons move on
- The founder of the Mormon Church was Joseph Smith, New Englander living in western New York.
- Smith hoped to use his visions to build an ideal society.
- Still, the Mormons continued to suffer persecution, or mistreatment.
a haven in the dessert
- The Mormon migration began in 1846, about 12,000 Mormons made the trek in the largest single migration in American history.
- In 1847 the Mormons finally reached the Great Salt Lake, there Young declared that the Mormons would build a new settlement.
- At first life was difficult for the settlers, the Mormons, however, made Deseret flourish through hard work and determination.
Why did the Mormons have to keep moving from one place to another?
The Mormons kept moving in an attempt to find somewhere they could live in peace.