These are beakers. They come in many different sizes but they all look the same. They have rounded bottoms and tops, but a lip opening at the top to pour the liquids. Beakers are used to measure out liquid amounts.
These are test tubes. They are used to heat up, or mix substances such as liquids and solids.
Safety goggles are used to protect your eyes from harmful gasses, liquids, and fire flames. They are to be worn at all times while in the lab.
Graduated cylinders are used to measure the volume of liquids.
Flasks are used to mix liquids.