Protein synthesis Hilda flores

Protein synthesis

Protein synthesis is turning the code in your DNA into proteins.

Organelles involved: DNA, RNA, ribosomes, and proteins.

Organisms that use protein synthesis: eukaryotic

Protein synthesis is important because the proteins control the type of reactions in the cellls.

Transcription

Steps of transcription:

Step 1: DNA Polymerase unzips the DNA

Step 2: Uses the DNA template to make an mRNA

Step 3: mRNA leaves the nucleus and goes into the cytoplasm

Organelles involved: DNA and RNA

DNA base pair rule: A matches with T and C matches with G

RNA base pair rule: A matches with U (use U instead of T) and C matches with G

This happened when the DNA breaks apart and creates RNA. This happens in the nucleus. RNA can leave the nucleus but DNA cannot.

Translation

Organelles involved: DNA, RNA, Ribosome, and Cytoplasm.

Molecules involved: mRNA and tRNA

tRNA: tRNA reads a codon and brings the matching amino acids.

This happens during translation. This happens in the ribosome.

Mutations

A mutation is a change in the DNA structure. Mutations are caused by Translocation, Duplication, Addition, Deletion, and Substitution. Translocation is when a base is moved, duplication is when a base is copied, addition is adding another base, deletion is deleting a base, and substitution is changing a base. Point mutation is not as dangerous as frameshift mutation. Point mutation is a change in one base. Frameshift mutation is a mutation that can shift how the bases are read by adding or deleting a base.

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