The Mediterranean Basin Abby and becky

Overview and vital signs of hot spot

1. It is the largest Mediterranean climate region. It exists from Portugal to Jordan west to east and northern Italy to Morocco from north to south.

2. Area surrounds the Mediterranean Sea and is 2,085,292 km². Now the area only covers 98,009 km².

3. Includes areas in... Spain, France, Balkan states, Greece, Turkey, Syria, Lebanon, Israel, Egypt, Libya, Tunisia and Algeria, around five thousand islands such as the Macaronesian Islands of the Canaries, Madeira, the Selvages (Selvagens), the Azores, and Cape Verde.

4. Cool wet winters

5. Hot dry summers

6. 100mm-3,000mm of rainfall

7. Spectacular mountains, peninsulas, and archipelagos

8. Resilient hard-leaf shrubs are now dominant instead of the evergreen oak forests.


Hotspot Original Extent (km²)- 2,085,292

Hotspot Vegetation Remaining (km²)- 98,009

Endemic Plant Species- 11,700

Endemic Threatened Birds- 9

Endemic Threatened Mammals- 11

Endemic Threatened Amphibians- 14

Extinct Species- 5

Human Population Density (people/km²)- 111

Area Protected (km²)- 90,242

Area Protected (km²) in Categories I-IV- 28,751

Specific species involved/threatened…

1. 22,500 vascular plant species ( This is four times the amount found in the rest of europes) only 52% of them are remaining.

2. 500 bird species live here. It is an important migration stop for many birds

3. 220 mammals...11% endemic

4. 225 reptile species...34% endemic

5. 80 amphibian species...31% endemic

6. ess than 220 freshwater fish species of which 60% are endemic

7. Some other species…Spanish imperial eagle, Greek tortoise, Iberian lynx Loggerhead turtle, Northern bald ibis, Ibiza wall lizard, Armeria

Mediterranean monk seal---one of the 6th most endangered mammals


1. This hotspot has been impacted for thousands of years by humans; longer than many other human hotspots.

2. Deforestation, excess grazing, fires to create agricultural land (strawberries, carnations), human development on the coast, habitat fragmentation

3. 110 million tourist come to the coast a year.

4. Only five percent of the hotspot has intact original vegetation. This hotspot is one of the most altered.

Projects as solutions and conservation efforts

Balance between conservation and human development.

Even if areas are protected, they are too small to actually support large animal populations.

European Union’s Habitats Directive (Natura 2000) mandates the countries part of this hotspot in the European Union to identify sites of biological importance and conservation efforts.

Regional cooperative programs such as the Mediterranean Action Plan which was created under the UN in the 1970's, began to deal with the decline of the Mediterranean Sea ecosystem.

It is recognized that more needs to be done to develop infrastructure that does not harm the surrounding habitats, especially in the population-dense coastal area.

It is recognized that ways of preserving rural agricultural practices and biodiversity must be established.

Sustainable grazing and forest fire management


Works cited

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