Cloning.... cloning is when you use science to copy something or someone exactly. even though it appears in more science fiction rather than reality purposes, scientists still work hard trying to crack the mystery of cloning. cloning started out by artificial “twinning,” which was first tested on a salamander egg in the 1900s by German scientist Hans Spemann.
The most successful attempt at cloning has been cloning cells in people, they use stem cells. Stim cells can become any other cell in the body, so scientists use stim cells to replace cells of a person that for some reason cant produce that kind of cell. There is a lot of ethical controversy some people don't think its right, but most people think It's right because some people cant live with out those certain cells and it could save there live.
Genetically modified organisms (gmo's). A good example of a genetically modified organism, would be most corn and vegetables from the store, big name companies genetically modifiy vegetables to produce more food or to look more appealing. Many people believe there is a problem with altering a things biology so there are ethical problems in that area.
Scientists also modify live stock to be bigger and produce more meat. Scietists take a cow embryo for example and modify it to produce the traits they are looking for, a lot of money goes into the genetically modifying of animals and plants
Stem cell research. Stem cell research is highly controversial because there are two different kinds of stem cell areas. The first one is adult stem cells that is where they use stem cells to produce cells there body for some reason cannot produce. And the other kind of stem cell research Is embryonic, that's where they take a stem cell and alter it to show traits that they want and then put it into a woman's egg so she can birth the child, people also call the offspring a "test tube baby"
DNA finger printing and Crime scene investigations. DNA fingerprinting is the specific sign that your DNA leaves behind, so for example if your hair is found on a couch at a crime scene they can run tests on it and prove it was you.
Personal ancestry is your family tree, so every birth is a new branch on the tree, your personal ancestry goes all the way back to your first ancestors. A paternity kit is what you use to find out if you are the father of a child. All you need to do it is get DNA from yourself, and the kid. All different people use paternity for all different reasons.o
A pcr or polymerase chain reaction, is something you use in molecular biology to amplify a segment of DNA. It's a cheap way to replicate DNA. Gel electrophoresis is a method in a lab to separate DNA and proteins based on size
A plasmid is a small DNA molecule that is different from the cells DNA. They are mostly found in bacteria cells. Recombinant DNA is DNA made In a lab that are made up from different DNA sequences. Transgenic organisms is also know as genetic engineering. Many of these expirements happen when scientists take DNA from one animal and combine it with another animals.
Sources: knowgenitics.com , britanica.com , naturejournal.com
sorry it's really late...