Unit 2 Vocabulary Paige assserope period 7

Amniocentesis: a technique for determining genetic abnormalities in a fetus by the presence of certain chemicals or defective fetal cells in the amniotic fluid, obtained by aspiration from a needle inserted into the uterus
Anneal: To be capable of combining with complementary nucleic acid by a process of heating and cooling
Carrier Screening: Indiscriminate examination of members of a population to detect heterozygotes for serious disorders
Chorionic Villus Sampling: A technique for diagnosing genetic and congenital defects in a fetus by removing and analyzing a sample of the fetal portion of the placenta
Denaturation: In DNA, the separation of the two strands of the double helix.
Gene: A discrete unit of hereditary information consisting of a specific nucleotide sequence of DNA
Genetic Counseling: A process of communication that deals with the occurrence or risk that a genetic disorder will occur in a family
Genetic Testing:The use of methods to determine if someone has a genetic disorder, will develop one, or is a carrier
Genome: The complement of an organism’s genes; an organisms genetic material
Genotype: The genetic makeup of an organism
Karyotype: A display of the chromosome pairs of a cell arranged by size and shape
Newborn Screening: The analysis of a neonate's blood for metabolic or genetic disorders to prevent mental retardation, disability or death
Phenotype: The physical and physiological traits of an organism
Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR): A technique that involves copying short pieces of DNA and then making millions of copies in a short period of time
Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD): n assisted reproductive technology, the determination of genetic abnormalities in the embryo before it is transferred to the uterus
Primer: A short piece of DNA or RNA that is complementary to a section of template strand and acts as an attachment and starting point for the synthesis strand during DNA replication
Restriction Enzyme: A degradative enzyme that recognizes specific nucleotide sequences and cuts up DNA.
Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP): One base pair variation in the genome sequence
Supernatant: The (usually) clear liquid left behind after a precipitate has been spun down to the bottom of a vessel by centrifugation
Taq Polymerase: A DNA synthesis enzyme that can withstand the high temperatures of PCR
Thermal Cycler: An instrument that automatically cycles through different temperatures used to complete PCR reactions
Ultrasonography: A noninvasive technique involving the formation of a two-dimensional image used for the examination and measurement of internal body structures and the detection of bodily abnormalities

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