Biotechnology Sarah mitchell

CLONING

Cloning is the process of generating a genetic identitcal copy of a cell or an organism. Cloning happens in nature all the time. In biomedical research, cloning is known as meaning the duplication of any kind of biological material for science study. Polymerase chain reaction is segments of DNA replicated exponentially. Reproductive cloning was originally carried out by artificial "twinning". In 1958 a biologist John Gurdon successfully carried out nuclear transfer using adult intestinal cells DNA of African Clawed Frogs. Upgrades in the field of molecular biology which had led to them getting new techniques that helped scientists to manipulate cells and helps to detect chemical markers that singles changes within cells. Reproductive cloning involves the implantation of a cloned embryo. Therapeutic cloning is known to use cloned embryos for meaning to extract stem cells for them, without ever implanting the embryos in a womb. Human reproductive cloning still remains difficult because of personal things like psychological meaning, social, and physiological risk that deal with cloning. The embryo that is intended to be implanted requires testing to be done to tell if the embryo is healthy and to see if the cloning process is complete.

Cloning

Some Advantages with cloning are Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's diseases, diabetes, heart failure, degenerative joint disease and many others could be made curable with cloning. Some Disadvantages with cloning is if a clone is susceptible to disease or changes in environment, then all the clones will be susceptible. It will lead to less variation, and less opportunity to create new varieties in the future.

Genetically modified organisms

Organisms that were engineered in a laboratory in order to fix the expression of desired physiological traits or the production of biological products. Yes GMO are still used today. Legislation worldwide makes the presence of Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in plants, foods, and in everyday ingredients. GMOs are produced through using a lot of different science methods that are "recombination DNA technology" also with reproductive cloning. GMOs have produced throughout genetic technologies and they have became a part of everyday life. Genetically Modified (GM) foods, were actually first approved for human people in the U.S in 1994.

Genetically Modified Organisms

Some advantages are it allows for more profits, it introduces the knowledge of genetic altercations, it is economically efficient, it is known to decrease food prices, it has more nutrition in to the plants, it's products are found to be safe. Some of the disadvantages include it can be dangerous to other insects that happen to be important to our ecosystem, it can damage the environment, it can create more weeds, it threatens crop diversity. Technology is used for genetically modified organisms inside a laboratory different substances are added to the plant. Mostly GMO is an organism that has been altered with DNA from some other organism it could be from bacterium, plant, virus or animal and all of those organisms are called "transgenic" organisms.

Stem cell research

Stem cells are an ongoing sources of the differentiated cells that make up the tissues and organs of animals and plants. Embryonic stem cells from human embryos and from embryos of certain other species can be grown in tissue culture. Stem cell research is ethically and politically controversial because it involves the destruction of human embryos. Some Advantages: it provides medical benefits in the fields of cloning and medicine, it will help scientists to learn about human growth and cell development, embryonic stem cells can develop into any cell types of the body and may then be more versatile than adult stem cells. Disadvantages are it's completely unknown what the long term effects could happen, embryonic stem cells may not be the solution for all ailments, these are derived from embryos that are not a patients body may reject them

DNA fringerprinting

DNA fingerprint was developed in 1984. DNA fingerprinting also known as DNA profiling method of isolating and identifying variable elements within the base pair sequence of DNA. Some Advantages are it helps people know more about their family background, it helps solve crimes, it can help determine and prevent illnesses. Some Disadvantages it can violate people's privacy, it can point the finger at the wrong person, it's complex and prone to errors. This DNA fingerprint is used today to determine whether a family relationship exists between two people, it resizable organisms causing a disease, and some times to solve crimes

DNA fingerprinting

The doctors ethical responsibilities include balancing the privacy and confidentiality of the individual and prevention of harm to others. The technology is first collecting a sample of cells, it can be skin, hair, or blood cells they all contain DNA. Genome is the entire DNA in an organism, that includes the genes. Genes carry information for making all the proteins required by all organisms.

Personal ancestry and paternity kits

Paternity tests are used to prove biological parenthood using a paternity test can be used to constitute the state of parenthood of an individual in a court case dealing with child support or custody. The test can also be to helpful placing a parents name on a birth certificate. The use of paternity test kits and ancestry are widely used all over the world. Humans are naturally curious beings and we all want more knowledge on where we originated. Technologies: Easier perform a DNA paternity, career highlights and family history, disadvantages: could not be used in court because of a need to satisfy, home- testing is considered a form of cheating, privacy problems and inside family problems.

PCR and Gel Electrophoresis

Gel electrophoresis of PCR products is the standard method for analyzing reactions quality and yield. The size of a DNA fragment can be estimated by gel electrophoresis. For this the process separates fragments by charge, size and shape. The Advantages to PCR is high efficiency, with dedicated vectors, and amenable to high throughput. The Disadvantages to PCR is limited vector choices, higher cost, lack of sequence control at junction, multi- fragment cloning is not straight forward, and directional cloning is difficult.

PCR and Gel Electrophoresis

Gel electrophoresis is a laboratory method used according to separate mixtures of DNA, RNA, or proteins according to molecule size. The Advantages for gel electrophoresis are it provides a clear link between similar results, Relatively simple to preform, can test DNA from any type of evidence relatively inexpensive. The Disadvantages for gel electrophoresis are the gels can be altered and provide inaccurate results, and user error can be catastrophic depending on the mistake. Gel electrophoresis is a process that can be used to separate DNA fragments, it uses an electric current to separate the pieces of DNA that are run through the gel, when it comes to Gel Electrophoresis there are little ethical concerns since it is only a process by which you can obtain DNA evidence it is used for crime fighting, suspect identification, paternity testing.

Plasmids, Recombinant DNA and Transgentic Organisms

Plasmid organisms are a strand of DNA that is found in bacteria (DNA synthesis depends on having an origin or DNA synthesis within a plasmid). Recombinant DNA is a DNA strand that is formed by two or more gene sequences (DNA molecules that are formed in labs where genetic recombination bring together genetic material). Advantages: used in clinical research, can be used for patients who have diseases. Disadvantages: unethical, unsafe for human consumption, they are victims. Technology: The same machinery used to replicate bacteria chromosomes are how plasmids are replicated. Transgenic technologies include: DNA micro injection, retrovirus- medicated gene transfer.

Biology

Citation

Get revising.co.uk Scribd.com Future of working.com DNA-fingerprinting.weebly.com Nature.com Scdiscus.org

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