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Issue #12: December 2018

Addressing the Nutrient Challenge – Promoting effective nutrient management, minimizing negative impacts on the environment and human health, while maximizing contribution to global sustainable development, food security & poverty reduction.

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Training on Nutrient Pollution and Wastewater Management Tools for Countries of the Western Indian Ocean Region

Workshop participants

The Nairobi Convention Secretariat, executing agent for the GEF-funded 'Implementation of the Strategic Action Programme for the protection of the Western Indian Ocean from land-based sources and activities’ (WIOSAP) Project, in collaboration with the Global Programme of Action hosted a workshop on application of tools and approaches for the management of land-based pollution. Some 40 technical and policy experts from countries of the western Indian Ocean attended the workshop, held in Maputo, Mozambique over the 10 and 11 December 2018. Christopher Cox, Programme Officer of UN Environment's Global Programme of Action provided training on tools developed under GPNM and Global Wastewater Initiative (GW2I) collaborations.

Three specific tools were featured in the training; (1) the nutrient runoff calculator derived from the Global NEWS (Global Nutrient Export from WaterSheds) model that is contained in the GPNM nutrient management toolbox; (2) a wastewater technology matrix (screening assessment) tool developed by the Global Wastewater Initiative in association with the International Water Association (IWA), and (3) the ecosystem health report card that has been applied in GPNM-supported projects in India and the Philippines. The workshop participants aim to apply the GPNM and GW2I tools in development and implementation of on-ground interventions in participating countries in the GEF-WIOSAP Project.

Participants in training

The GPNM Nutrient Management Toolbox may be accessed at http://www.nutrientchallenge.org/gpnm-toolbox. Contact Christopher Cox at christopher.cox@un.org for any questions. For more information on the Wastewater Technology Matrix contact Birguy Lamizana at birguy.lamizana@un.org

More photos of the training are on the GPNM Flickr photo site.

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Nutrient Pollution, Agriculture and Biodiversity; Reflections at the 14th Conference of Parties of the Convention on Biological Diversity

Side event panelists: L-R: Edda Fernández Luiselli, Mexico; Glenn Litsios, Environmental Footprints of Switzerland; Kelly Ramirez, Netherlands Institute of Ecology; and Nandula Raghuram, International Nitrogen Initiative; GPNM ©IISD

During the 14th meeting of the Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) in Sharm El-Sheikh, Egypt, November 2018, Prof. N. Raghuram, Chair of the International Nitrogen Initiative and member of the GPNM Steering Committee, participated in a side event 'Soil in the nexus - Soil and Biodiversity: role and importance in the nexus'. He highlighted the fact that while nutrient pollution is at the heart of the three Rio conventions, very little attention is placed on the issue in the context of meeting obligations under the Convention. He framed the priority of addressing nutrient pollution in the context of findings and recommendations of the European Nitrogen Assessment and the recently published Indian Nitrogen Assessment.

The Toward an International Nitrogen Management System (INMS) funded by the Global Environment Facility will contribute to strengthening the basis for action through both global-level and regional-level assessments, driven by future scenario analyses. He noted that consideration needs to be given to a global policy arena for nitrogen management, interlinked with the multiple intergovernmental processes that currently exist, including the CBD. The discussion considered the unbalanced and geographically uneven access to and use of fertilizers (e.g. in the Africa region), and the need for fine-tuning best practices in nutrient use efficiency in accordance with the agro-ecological conditions. There is recognized need for better synergies between agriculture and environment ministries in designing mutually benefiting policies to effect for better results on the ground from both the perspective of food production and maintenance of ecosystem services.

Further information on the session, "Soil in the nexus" is available here. Contact Prof. Raghuram for more information at raghuram98@hotmail.com.

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Nutrient and Nitrogen Management Projects Profiled at the GEF 9th International Waters Conference, Marrakesh, Morocco

Participants at the 9th GEF International Waters Conference

At the 9th Global Environment Facility’s International Waters Conference (IWC9) convened in Marrakech, Morocco over the 3 to 8 November; the two UN Environment GEF projects on nutrient management were profiled; the Global Nutrient Cycle (GNC) Project and the Toward an International Nitrigen Management System (INMS) Project. The GEF International Waters Conference, a biennial signature event of the GEF International Waters portfolio was held under the theme "Sustaining International Waters Cooperation." The conference brought together some 300 GEF-IW project managers, representatives of beneficiary countries, non-governmental organizations, transboundary management institutions, UN Agencies and the private sector to facilitate cross-sectoral and GEF IW Portfolio-wide learning and experience sharing.

The project managers and technical collaborators of the Global Nutrient Cycle Project and the Toward an International Nitrogen Management System (INMS) Project hosted two sessions within the 'Clinic Carousel' segment of the conference agenda on the impacts of nutrient pollution in the environment. The resource persons were Christopher Cox, Project Manager of the GNC Project, UN Environment, Sara Walker, Senior Manager, World Resources Institute (WRI) and Wilfried Winiwater, Senior Reserach Fellow of the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA). The GEF-Global Nutrient Cycle Project and the Toward an International Nitrogen Management System Project jointly mounted an exhibition booth at the conference that won first prize :) in conference participant voting. Bilateral discussions were led with various partners on possibilities to build on addressing the nutrient challenge through further GEF investments.

Top row: Interactive clinic on nutrient management; Second row: joint GEF-Global Nutrient Cycle Project and GEF-Toward an International Nitrogen Management System (INMS) Project exhibition booth; Third row: GNC and INMS Project managers and UN Environment project task managers.

For more information on the GEF Global Nutrient Cycle Project contact Christopher Cox at christopher.cox@un.org; For more information on the GEF Toward an International Nitrogen Management System Project contact Clare Howard at inms@ceh.ac.uk

For more information on the GEF-International Waters Conference and the GEF-IWLEARN Network contact Mish Hamid at mish@iwlearn.org or Natalie Degger at natalie@iwlearn.org.

More photos available at the GPNM Flickr photo site

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The Global Programme of Action holds its 4th Intergovernmental Review - Strategic Directions on combating Marine Pollution; Bali, Indonesia

Delegates at the plenary segment

The 4th Intergovernmental Review of the Global Programme of Action was hosted by the Government of Indonesia in Bali, Indonesia over the 31 October to 01 November 2018. The review meeting was attended by more than 240 delegates, representing over 60 countries. The meeting was also attended by UN partner agencies, intergovernmental organizations observers, experts, the private sector and the academia. The meeting considered the review of the work of the Programme since the last intergovernmental review held in the Philippines in 2012, the outlook on future work and strategic options for management of the Programme in relation to mandate and alignment to the UN Environment Assembly.

The meeting concluded with a ‘Bali Declaration’ where countries affirmed the need for continued focus on the priority marine pollution categories namely marine litter, nutrients and wastewater. The countries underscored the value of the work of the global partnerships associated with the three pollution categories with encouragement for strengthening; namely the Global Partnership on Nutrient Management (GPNM), the Global Partnership on Marine Litter (GPML) and the Global Wastewater Initiative (GW2I). The meeting directed the Global Programme of Action (GPA) Coordination Office to continue the review process of the future operational options of the Programme for consideration by countries at the Fourth Session of United Nations Environment Assembly (UNEA-4).

Top and middle rows: plenary sessions and Bali Declaration drafting group deliberations; bottom row - left: GPA/UN Environment team; right: Indonesian and national delegation representatives

To access the IGR4 meeting documents, visit: https://papersmart.unon.org/igr-meeting/working-docs

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Bringing the International Global Agenda to Address Pollution from Reactive Nitrogen and Nutrients to discussion at UN Environment

On 24 October 2018, the Global Programme of Action (GPA), together with the International Nitrogen Initiative (INI) and the Global Partnership on Nutrient Management (GPNM) organized a side event “Towards an International Global Agenda to Address Pollution from forms of Reactive Nitrogen and Nutrients across Air, Land, Water, and Oceans” on the margins of the 5th Annual Subcommittee meeting of the Committee of Permanent Representatives (CPR) to UN Environment. The event was an opportunity to discuss the growing global challenge of nutrient pollution and impacts on human and environmental health, with a focus on reactive nitrogen. Participants also learned how UN Environment and partners are addressing the nutrient pollution challenge under the United Nations Environment Assembly (UNEA) mandate and through major flagship initiatives such as the International Nitrogen Management System (INMS). Discussions explored potential opportunities to strengthen the positioning of the issue of sustainable nutrient management and environmental concerns within a global-level governance space.

Mark Sutton of the UK Centre for Ecology & Hydrology and director of the GEF-Toward an International Nitrogen Management System Project (also representing the GPNM and INI), Lori Dando, Permanent Representative of the United States to UNEP, and N. Raghuram of the International Nitrogen Initiative delivered featured addresses on the nutrient/nitrogen challenge at the global level and in the context of the United States and India.

Clockwise from top left: Habib El-Habr, UN Environment; Lori Dando, Permanent Representative, US State Department; N. Raghuram, GGS Indraprastha University; Vladimir Lenev, Deputy Permanent Representative, Russian Federation; Beth Fernald, US State Department; Weerawardena Sunil Dharmasena de Silva, High Commissioner, Sri Lanka; Mark Sutton, Centre for Ecology & Hydrology

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Transferring Best Practices in Water Pollution Assessments from Laguna Lake, Philippines and Chilika Lake, India, to Lake Naivasha, Kenya

Workshop participants at Lake Naivasha, Kenya

Over the 24 to 28 September, the Secretariat of the Global Partnership on Nutriment Management, in association with the Global Programme of Action (GPA), in co-operation with the Freshwater Ecosystems Unit of UN Environment, organized a technical exchange between experts from Laguna Lake Development Authority (LLDA) of the Philippines, Chilika Lake Development Authority (CDA) of India and national stakeholders concerned with preserving the environmental and water quality of Lake Naivasha in Kenya. This exchange was to facilitate the development of an Ecosystem Health Report Card (EHRC) in a replication effort for Lake Naivasha, based on work undertaken in India and the Philippines as part of the GEF-Global Nutrient Cycle Project, that is executed by the Global Programme of Action with oversight by the Steering Committee of the GPNM. On Monday 24 September, the experts and participants convened at UN Environment for a Symposium that marked the commencement of the activity, where they had a chance to meet various stakeholders, including UN Environment technical personnel, and representatives from Permanent Missions to UN Environment in Nairobi. This was followed by a three-day workshop with local stakeholders at Naivasha in which participants discussed the water pollution challenges and key considerations related to the development of an Ecosystem Health Report Card for Lake Naivasha. Nutrient pollution loading was identified among the critical issues that are plaguing the lake ecosystem. The workshop concluded with the development of roadmap for replication of the ecosystem health scorecard for Lake Naivasha in coming months.

Core funding for the technical exchange was from the UN Environment project ‘Addressing the Nutrient Challenge through an Effective Global Partnership on Nutrient Management (GPNM), the ‘GEF Global Nutrient Cycle Project’; and ‘Strengthening the normative basis for planning, monitoring and managing water quality for aquatic ecosystems’, a project supported under UN Environment's Freshwater Ecosystems Unit. Further assistance was provided under GEF-International Waters Learning Exchange and Resources Network (IW LEARN) in the participation of two participants associated with related GEF and World Bank projects in the Caribbean and Romania.

Key collaborators included the Laguna Lake Development Authority, National Centre for Sustainable Coastal Management, India, Imarisha Naivasha, Lake Naivasha Riparian Association, World Wildlife Fund for Nature, Ministry of Water of Kenya, Water Resources Authority of Kenya and the National Environment Management Authority of Kenya.

Top row (L-R): Ramesh Ramachandran, National Centre for Sustainable Coastal Management, India (GPNM Chair); Adelina C. Santos-Borja, Laguna Lake Development Authority, the Philippines; Mbogo Kamau, Imarisha Naivasha

See more photos from the workshop at the GPNM Flickr photo site

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Methodology development for the Sustainable Development Goal target 14.1 marine pollution indicator

Chilika Lake, Odisha State, India

UN Environment, under the Global Programme of Action (GPA) in association with IOC-UNESCO, brought together some 23 scientific experts, Regional Seas Programmes (HELCOM, NOWPAP, MAP) and earth observation specialists from NASA Ames Research Center and the European Space Agency working on the science of marine pollution indicators, data capture and dissemination, to advance the global methodology development on eutrophication and plastic debris assessment under SDG Target 14.1. The meeting was convened in Paris over 12-13 September 2018. The Science Division of UN Environment provided technical support and guidance to the deliberations. Experts from the Global Partnership on Nutrient Management and the Global Partnership on Marine Litter contributed to the deliberations.

The meeting reviewed the state of science on the SDG 14.1 target indicators, specifically, the index of coastal eutrophication potential (ICEP) and floating plastic debris, along with other relevant metrics. The meeting also explored the application of ‘big data’ through earth observation systems and how these can be applied in monitoring freshwater and coastal pollution. Participants considered the process to facilitate country adoption of a ‘harmonized approach’ to report on the SDG14.1 target. The meeting outputs will advance the indicator methodology development for consideration by the SDGs Inter-Agency and Expert Group under the UN Statistical Commission.

Top: meeting participants; 2nd row: Vladimir Ryabinin, IOC-UNESCO; John Harrsion, Washington State University; Paolo Corradi, European Space Agency; Lex Bouwman, PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency; Isabelle Ansorge, University of Cape Town, South Africa

For more information contact Jillian Campbell, UN Environment Science Division at campbell7@un.org; Christopher Cox at christopher.cox@un.org (nutrients); Hiedi Savelli at heidi.savelli@un.org (marine litter)

See more photos from the workshop at the GPNM Flickr photo site

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The 6th Sustainable Phosphorus Summit, Brasilia

Participants at the SPS2018

Phosphorus is an essential element for both plant and animal growth and is not replaceable by other elements. In the last 50 years phosphate fertilizers have enhanced crop yields, providing food for billions of people and livestock. World food security is dependent on sufficient access to phosphorus fertilizers for farmers. Phosphorus security is critical for realizing many goals of global society. These include food security and provision of clean water, integrity of ecosystems and fertile soils, maintaining livelihoods, human health and geopolitical security. However, there is little global joined-up thinking about how we can deliver a secure phosphorus future.

At the 6th Sustainable Phosphorus Summit (SPS2018) held in Brasilia, Brazil over the 20 to 22 August 2018, diverse science, policy and industry stakeholders gathered together from different parts of the food production and consumption chain, to advance knowledge and identify actions regarding the role of phosphorus availability and accessibility in food security and agriculture, protecting the environment, and supporting rural and urban livelihoods. The summit was organized by Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation (EMPRAPA).

Participants agreed that there is emerging consensus on a global declaration from the scientific community on more sustainable phosphorus management. This message was carried from the third European Sustainable Phosphorus Conference held in Helsinki, Finland in June 2018 where scientists considered a "Helsinki Declaration", a global call to policy makers worldwide to support progression towards more sustainable phosphorus management. The Global Partnership on Nutrient Management (GPNM) Secretariat contributed to a session on ‘Phosphorus and global environmental governance’ that sought to gain consensus and recommendations on a global policy strategic approach that may be facilitated by UN Environment and feed into implementation of the Third session of the United Nations Environment Assembly (UNEA-3) resolutions on pollution, with specific reference to the resolution on water pollution.

Clockwise from top-left: Gene Metson (Institute for Sustainable Futures) and Tina-Simone Neset (Linköping University), Ludwig Hermann (ESPP), Luis Inácio Prochnow (IPNI), conference participants, Vinicius Benites (EMBRAPA)

For more information on SPS2018 contact: Vinicius Benites, Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation vinicius.benites@embrapa.br

See more photos from the summit at the GPNM Flickr photo site.

Related: watch Karmenu Vella, European Commissioner for Environment, Fisheries and Maritime Affairs talk about the response within the European Union to address management of phosphorus as contribution to the 3rd European Sustainable Phosphorus Management Conference held in Helsinki, Finland in June 2018.

For more information on the European Sustainable Phosphorus Platform contact: Chris Thornton at info@phosphorusplatform.eu

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Nutrient management valuation in Rondonópolis municipality in the upper Pantanal Region of South America

The Pantanal ©Mato Grosso

The Global Partnership on Nutrient Management (GPNM) case study on Nutrient Management Valuation in Rondonópolis municipality in the upper Pantanal Region of South America has concluded. The study was led by Felipe Pacheco of the Brazil National Institute for Space Research in association with the Federal University of Mato Grosso.

The study resulted in a valuation methodology to assess nitrogen and phosphorus inputs from fertilizer application and other pathways; the outflows from the system, and estimated costs and benefits in terms of agricultural production, human health, ecosystem and climate impacts. The Vermelho River watershed, a 23,265 km2 basin was used to develop the methodology.

The study concluded that the total costs tend to exceed the benefit of nitrogen fertilization by US$2.3 million dollars per year. This value is relatively low compared to the total of the benefits estimated at US$37 million and costs estimated at US$39 million, where the benefits of nitrogen use is offset by the impact of nitrogen emissions. The obvious options for better practice are reducing emissions NH3 and N2O, as these reactive nitrogen emissions generate most social and environmental costs. The common use of urea as fertilizer in the region may represent the main source of ammonium volatilization. Changes in the type of fertilizer use (e.g, ammonium sulphate) may be an option to reduce reactive nitrogen emissions.

Estimated nitrogen and phosphorus budgets in crop systems in the Vermelho River Basin

The methodology and approach applied can be used as a tool for local and regional agricultural production planning in Brazil and applied potentially to other countries through the Global Partnership on Nutrient Management (GPNM). This work, is the first of its kind in a developing country; and there are possibilities will be scaled-up under the GEF-Toward and Integrated Nitrogen Management System (INMS) Project being implemented by the UN Environment.

The full report along and policy brief for decision makers are available here.

Principal researcher Felipe Pacheco (left); consultations during project implementation

For more information contact Felipe Pachecho, felipe.pacheco@inpe.br and Jean Ometto, jean.ometto@inpe.br, Brazil National Institute for Space Research.

Where Animal Poop Is Turning into Deadly Ammonia Pollution

Source: Brandon Specktor, Live Science, December 5, 2018

Researchers at Université Libre de Bruxelles (ULB) in Belgium have used nine years of satellite data between 2007 and 2016, gathered by the MetOp satellite mission, to create the most comprehensive map of global atmospheric ammonia ever made. The data comes from a series of three meteorological satellites launched by the European Space Agency to catalog the various components of our planet's atmosphere, including ammonia. The study revealed 242 ammonia "hotspots" (emission zones with a diameter of less than 31 miles, or 50 kilometers), as well as 178 wider emission zones, confirming that 241 of them were clearly linked to human activities. Of those, 83 were linked to intensive livestock farming and 158 were linked to other industries, mainly plants producing ammonia-based fertilizer.

Atmospheric ammonia fluxes based on 9 years of satellite data shows 242 ammonia hot spots (surrounded by black circles) and 178 wider emission zones (framed by white rectangles). According to a new study, about two thirds of these hot spots were previously unknown. Credit: Martin Van Damme and Lieven Clarisse/ULB

Emissions of forms of reactive nitrogen such as ammonia are intense from large industrial farms where large volumes of animal manure decomposes - the released ammonia can combine with other compounds to pollute the air, water and soil. Exposure to these polluted resources can lead to lung disease and death in humans as well as crop failure and mass animal death. The findings suggest that we have been vastly underestimating the amount of ammonia our industries are releasing into the atmosphere. According to the researchers, two-thirds of the hotspots they found have not been previously reported in prior environmental surveys, while emissions from other hotspots have been significantly under-reported. Read the full article here.

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The Ocean is losing its breath: declining oxygen in the world's ocean and coastal waters

Pasig River where it meets Manila Bay, the Philippines

Source: The Ocean is losing its breath: declining oxygen in the world's ocean and coastal waters - A summary for policy makers, IOC-UNESCO, Global Ocean Oxygen NEtwork (GO2NE)2018

Since the 1960s, the area of low oxygen water in the open ocean has increased by 4.5 million km2 and over 500 low oxygen sites have been identified in estuaries and other coastal water bodies. Human activities are a major cause of oxygen decline in both the open ocean and coastal waters; this is from burning of fossil fuels which result in climate change, coupled with discharges from agriculture and human waste, notably in the form of nitrogen and phosphorus inputs. Intensive aquaculture operations can contribute to deoxygenation by due to oxygen demand for respiration by both the farmed animals and by microbes that decompose their excess food and faeces.

The process of warming of oceans driven by climate change reduces the supply of oxygen to the open ocean and coastal waters by increasing stratification and decreasing the solubility of oxygen in water. Deoxygenation may also contribute to climate change through its effects on the nitrogen cycle. When oxygen is insufficient for aerobic respiration, microbes conduct denitrification to obtain energy. This produces N2O – a powerful greenhouse gas – as well as N2, which is inert and makes up most of the earth’s atmosphere.

Impacts of excess nutrients (eutrophication) on ocean oxygen. (Figure modified from https://upload.wikimedia.org/ wikipedia/commons/d/dd/Scheme_eutrophication-en.svg)

The impacts on marine biodiversity and productive fisheries is far-reaching as insufficient oxygen reduces growth, increases disease, alters behaviour and increases mortality of marine animals, including finfish and shellfish. Finfish and crustacean aquaculture can be particularly susceptible to deoxygenation because animals are constrained in nets or other structures and cannot escape to highly-oxygenated water masses.

The problem of deoxygenation is predicted to worsen in the coming years. Global warming is expected to worsen deoxygenation during the twenty-first century due to continued greenhouse gas emissions. The global discharge of nitrogen and phosphorus to coastal waters may increase in many regions of the world as human populations and economies grow. It is expected that many areas will experience more severe and prolonged hypoxia than at present under the same nutrient loads. Urgent steps required to limit this global trend; addressing land-based pollution through improved fertilizer use efficiency, better management of manures from livestock production and improved sewage treatment are among the frontline measures. Read more here.

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The Nitrogen Problem: Why Global Warming Is Making It Worse

Lake Taihu, China in June 2007. Source: LIU JIN/AFP/GETTY IMAGES

Source: YaleEnvironment360, Aug 7, 2017 by Richard Conniff

Increases in rainfall and extreme weather triggered by climate change influences will increase the amount of nitrogen runoff from cultivated watershed areas that will pollute rivers and other waterways. Warming water-body and ocean temperatures in response to changing climate will exacerbate the situation. Lakes and other freshwater bodies now routinely face toxic blue-green algae blooms that are fueled by nitrogen pollution that has been presenting serious public health challenges particularly with respect to contamination of drinking water by nitrates; notable cases have occurred in Toledo, Ohio in the United States (2014), Lake Taihu in China (2007), among other occurrences in Brazil and the Philippines. Persistent eutrophication in the Gulf of Mexico, and recent harmful algal blooms along the Florida and Washington State Pacific coasts have had significant economic impacts to fisheries.

The urgency of reforming agriculture to dramatically reduce pollution is gaining more attention. Among the suite of control measures that call for improved fertilizer use efficiency and good agronomic practice, solutions being proposed include cultivation of varieties of genetically-modified cereals that efficiently fix nitrogen from the atmosphere and investment in lab-cultured meat to assist in easing the contributions of the livestock sector to nitrogen emissions. Read the full article here.

New Leadership for the International Nitrogen Initiative (INI)

Prof. N. Raghuram of GGS Indraprastha University, New Delhi, President of the Indian Nitrogen Group and a Steering Committee member of the UN Environment Global Partnership on Nutrient Management has been nominated as the chair of the International Nitrogen Initiative (INI). Prof. Raghuram specialises in the biological determinants of crop N use efficiency. He will become the first INI Chair from Asia. His appointment reflects the growing importance of nitrogen for Asia, as well as the recent publication of the Indian Nitrogen Assessment, for which he was one of the coordinators.

The Vice-Chair Elect of INI is Prof David Kanter, of New York University, who is an expert in the role of nitrous oxide and nitrogen policy evaluation. Prof Kanter co-leads the International Nitrogen Management System (INMS) activity on future nitrogen scenarios. He recently led the nitrogen side event at the 2018 meeting of the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea. The outgoing chair of INI, Prof. Mark Sutton of the UK Centre for Ecology and Hydrology (CEH), based in Edinburgh, commented: “Chairing the INI has offered a roller-coaster opportunity to bring nitrogen science to the world stage.

L-R N. Raghuram; David Kanter

The new Chair and Vice Chair of INI will take on responsibility for the overall steer of INI, as well as the network of six regional centres, each under an INI Regional Director (Africa, East Asia, South Asia, Europe, Latin America, North America). Other INI projects under their purview include the “N-print” activity on nitrogen foot-printing and cooperation with the Global Carbon Project on establishment of a global nitrous oxide budget.

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NitroPortugal launches its online game "NITROSMASH!"

NitroPortugal launched its online game application Nitrosmash! NitroSmash is a smasher/arcade educational game developed to raise awareness of the problems of reactive nitrogen in the environment. The main goal of the game is to stop ammonia and nitrous oxide molecules from reaching the atmosphere. Gamers play to improve their score and beat their record in this endless smasher.

This game was produced under the NitroPortugal project. The app is available at https://apkpure.co/nitrosmash/

For more information on NitroPortugal: http://www.isa.ulisboa.pt/proj/nitroportugal/ Contact Cláudia Marques-dos-Santos Cordovil at cms@isa.ulisboa.pt

European Sustainable Nutrient Initiative (ESNI) event. 22 January 2019, Brussels, Belgium. Visit the website

4th Session of the United Nations Environment Assembly (UNEA-4), 11-15 March 2019, Nairobi, Kenya. Visit the website

Phosphates 2019 conference, 25 - 27 March 2019, Omni Orlando Resort, Florida, USA. Visit the website

SPA Phosphorus Forum 2019, 4 April 2019, Washington DC, USA. Visit the website

IFA Global Technical Symposium, New Orleans, USA, 8-11 April 2019. Visit the website.

INMS-4 Assembly and GEF-GNC Project Close-out Meeting; 29th April – 3rd May, Nairobi, Kenya.

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PARTICIPATE IN THIS IMPORTANT SURVEY...will take a few minutes of your time. The GPNM Secretariat wishes to know how we may better suit the needs of the nutrient management community. Please access the survey on the link here.

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On behalf of the GPNM Steering Committee, the Secretariat wishes you the best for the festive season and the brightest for the New Year!

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The Global Partnership on Nutrient Management (GPNM) is a multi-stakeholder partnership comprising of governments, the private sector, the scientific community, civil society organizations and UN agencies committed to promoting effective nutrient management (with a focus on nitrogen and phosphorus) to achieve the twin goals of food security through increased productivity and conservation of natural resources and the environment. UN Environment, through the Coordination Office of the Global Programme of Action for the Protection of the Marine Environment from Land-based Activities (GPA), provides the Secretariat of GPNM. Read more at: www.nutrientchallenge.org. For more information contact Christopher Cox at christopher.cox@un.org or Milcah Ndegwa at milcah.ndegwa@un.org

JOIN the GPNM! Access the application form here.

Website: http://web.unep.org/gpa/what-we-do/global-partnership-nutrient-management

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