The highest court in the Judicial Branch is the Supreme Court. There are 9 justices that are part of the Supreme Court and decide on the constitutionality of laws and cases brought on to them. The 9 justices serve a term for as long as they determine necessary. They are appointed by the President of the United States and confirmed or rejected by the Senate. Chuck Schumer, a senator from New York, is a part of the confirmation process because he is one of the senators that vote to confirm or reject the President's appointee to be a justice.
The Supreme Court Justices in 1977
One important case that the Supreme Court ruled on was the case of Brown v. Board of Education, Topeka KS. The original complaint of this case was that the segregation of schools went against the Equal Rights Protection clause of the 14th amendment. The Supreme Court unanimously decided that this was in fact against the Equal Rights Protection Clause and ruled the "separate but equal" laws unconstitutional. This decision led to the desegregation of schools and an important step in the Civil Rights movement