Durning the 1200s the ruler of the empire was Safī od-Dīn, was the ruler of the original empire. But later the empire was tacken by the Persians. Esmā'īl who was a prisoner of the Persians escaped then took the city of Tabriz which he made his capital and declared himself the Shah. Then he later fought the Ottomans over his acceptance of the shi'ah religion, using his army of kizilbash. After his death his son took over the fight later losing land to the Ottomans in the end. Later Abbas came to the throne. Abbas recreated the military and then took the land that was lost to them from the Ottomans and moved the capital to Esfahan.
The empire started in th 1200s originally ruled by the Persians. Until durning the 1500s Esmā'īl escaped the Persians. When he took the city of Tabrīz making it his capital. When Esmā'īl took the throne he claimed the religion to be shi'ah, even though most of the empire was Sunni at the time. But due to how the empire though Esmā'īl as a saint it made the conversion easy.
The Shah originally encouraged trade and the manufacturing with foreign powers. Durning this time a major export for the Safavid was their exporting carpets. These carpets often end up in the wealthy homes of European homes. But after the death of Abbas economy crumbled and fell into many smaller states.
The capital of Safavid was known for having many fantastic mosques, monuments, as well as bath houses. Europeans began to call the empire as a comercial center for the first order.