Madagascar's Current Human Development Status
Madagascar is positioned 154 out of 187 countries in HDI rankings. The Life Expectancy at birth is 10.3 and the Employment to population ratio is 85.4. (Human Development Report) These factors as well as Income and Composition of Resources of 1,328.3 and Trade and Financial Flows of 73.1 are very influential in determining their Human Development Index. It is very low, showing that poverty is present in Madagascar. The Multidimensional Poverty Index is 0.42, with 77% of the population suffering from poverty. (Human Development Report)
Causes of the Underdevelopment
Geographical Causes: Erosion is a serious problem is Madagascar, especially for farmers damage nearby forests by burning off their old crops at the end of winter. "In 2003, only about 4.3% of the total land area was protected." (Madagascar)
Domestic Causes: The country does not invest in sustainable industries that would help improve economic development. The new president, Marc Ravalomanana, does not want to follow the old system and would rather attract foreign investment to enforce building sustainable business models in Madagascar. Colonialism effects the country because the economy is closely tied with resource extraction. (Why Is Madagascar so Poor?)
Lack of Infrastructure: Out of 49,827 roads in Madagascar, only 5,780 are paved in terrible condition and most only allowing one vehicle in a lane. Due to weather conditions, roads and bridges can be wiped out, making it harder for citizens to travel. President Marc Ravalomanana wants to install major infrastructure improvement program to bring economic benefits. (Why Is Madagascar so Poor?)
Development attempt History
The country has been participating in 144 projects since the Road’s Project approved on August 2, 1966, which entailed the construction of basic infrastructure including roads and bridges. As of now, Madagascar is active in 16 projects in order to develop. The most committed project currently is the Emergency Infrastructure Preservation & Vulnerability Reduction Project, which is the rehabilitation of lifeline infrastructure and disaster risk mitigation component. (Projects & Operations)
Policy Suggestions to Encourage Development
1. Conserving Madagascar's wildlands and biodiversity would be beneficial to the of future economic development in Madagascar. President Marc Ravalomanana should advise the citizens, in particular the farmers, about respecting their country's land. This will work because the country will gain more from the resources it offers.
2. President Marc Ravalomanana befriending and allying with surrounding countries. By him going and making international relations with surrounding countries, this opens up many opportunities including trade and guidance to help develop. This will work because countries can use this developing country to their advantage, so it is most likely they can form an alliance. By doing this, it is better than not talking to any countries at all.
3. Building infrastructure because it will help start the community to be more active and want the country to succeed. Infrastructure is what starts basic development. Others countries will see this and will respect Madagascar more. This will work because if President Marc Ravalomanana tells the citizens all of its the benefits that will become, they will follow in his footsteps.