CAUSE 1 - A great cause is curiousity like that Christopher Columbus was after he read marco polos book. Christopher Columbus wanted to travel to the other side of China and he ended up discovering the Americas. He proved it in the letter he wrote for the king of Spain, Ferdinand, showing his discoveries.
CAUSE 2 - Another way exploration was caused is Europeans wanted resources. Europe became addicted to sugar! They wanted more and more. They soon discovered tropics were perfect for growing sugar. They also needed more than just sugar, the Europeans wanted more spices which they had to travel thousands of miles for.
EFFECT 1 - Christopher Columbus was curious and wanted to explore, the effect was he brought disease with him to the Americas. The people he found had no immunity to the new diseases so a big portion of the native Americans died off. Not only did he bring disease but he also caused a culture clash.
Effect 2 - so one of the effects of exploration is that spices were desired so they searched and searched for islands. The explorers would transform entire islands into sugar plantations. This among other reasons brought together Europe, Asia, Africa, and the Americas. This started a thriving trade in spices and other goods between these continents. Making the spice islands known for being the largest producers of mace, nutmeg, cloves and pepper in the world. This changed the way our world would trade with spices and drove us to search across the world for these spices.