The pollution caused by human activities from fossil fuels burning such as coal-burning power plants, factories and automobiles are releasing sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides that react with water and oxygen in the atmosphere to create acid rain. When acid rain reaches Earth it flows into water sources creating a toxic and unusable water source.


Large ozone holes over Tasmania, New Zealand, and large parts of the Antarctic have been discovered due to fossil fuel burning causing acidic rain which burns holes in the atmosphere. Other forms of trans boundary pollution include industrial emissions of sulfur and nitrogen oxides. Returning to the ground in the form of acid rain, these chemicals damage forests, soils, and freshwater ecosystems. The increase levels of carbon dioxide and other gases form pollution which cannot escape into the atmosphere then mix with water and oxygen to produce acid rain. This acid rain causes the chemical composition of several water sources to change causing level and temperature changes, producing an unsafe water source for humans and animals.


In order to decrease acid rain, pollution emission needs to be addressed. Limitations on carbon emissions must be placed on all nations in order to ensure decreased levels of carbon dioxide. More developed countries such as The United States and China should have a higher fine if they surpass this limit considering they contribute more carbon admissions than under developed, third world countries. This should reduce the acid rain production with less carbon dioxide emissions in the atmosphere.


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