Charles Darwin was born on February 9th, 1809 in Shrewsbury England. Darwin came from a long line of scientists, as his father was a medical doctor and his grandfather was a renowned botanist. He received his education from the University of Edinburgh in Cambridge when he was only 16. Darwin was fascinated by nature and on 1831 embarked on a five year trip across the world studying nature. On this trip he collected birds, plants and fossils. Much of his experience came from this trip and helped him develop his ideas.
Darwin came back from his trip and immediately developed his theory of evolution. His theory stated that all specimens "gradually evolved from a common ancestral origin in an unending 'struggle for survival'" (Source 2). This theory means that all things evolve when they have to so that they can survive in their habitat. The theory was embedded in his work On the Origin of Species by the Means of Natural Selection.
This theory came with controversy as it contradicted with the church. The theory stated that humans moved along without God's intervention. Many people laughed at Darwin for his "crazy" theory, but many people praised him for his great scientific discovery.
Darwin's idea of natural selection was a deep part of his theory of evolution. His idea stated that species that properly evolved to fit their requirements for their habitat thrived where specimen that did not correctly evolve failed to reproduce, died off, and eventually became extinct.
The Idea of Social Darwinism was developed by English philosopher Herbert Spencer. The Idea stated that the strongest would thrive the most while the weak, ultimately the poor, would not thrive. This was a strong nationalist idea as it fueled the global competition between countries to see who was the "strongest."
His theory of evolution has been a great controversy ever since the development of it as the Church has greatly disagreed with its principles. Evolution was not allowed to be taught in public schools in the U.S., but the court case of The State of Tennessee v. John Thomas Scopes in 1925 challenged this. Teaching evolution in government funded schools was not allowed and a substitute teacher, John Scopes taught this idea to his class. He was ultimately found guilty and fined a 100 dollars. This case started the conversion of if evolution should be taught in public schools and if modern science should be taught as well.
Darwin died in London, on April 19, 1882. He is known as a great scientist and a leader in modern science.
Source 1: Biography.com Editors. "Charles Darwin." Biography.com. A&E Networks Television, 12 Feb. 2015. Web. 30 Jan. 2017. http://www.biography.com/people/charles-darwin-9266433#theory-of-evolution.
Source 2: McKay / Hill/ Buckler / Crowston / Wiesner-Hanks / Perry. "Science and Thought." History of Western Society. 11th ed. Bedford 2011.: Bedford St. Martins, 744-45. Print.
Source 3: "Scopes Trial." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, Web. 30 Jan. 2017. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scopes_Trial.