Environmental Chem Concepts Yazan salman, dillon Awbery

ENERGY

Energy: Temperature vs Heat - Heat and temperature are related to each other, but are different concepts. Heat is the total energy of molecular motion in a substance while temperature is a measure of the average energy of molecular motion in a substance.

Laws of thermodynamics-It is the first law, It also known as Law of Conservation of Energy, IT states that energy cannot be created or destroyed in a isolated system. The second law of thermodynamics states that the entropy always increases.

Calories and specific Heat- specific heat is the amount of heat per unit mass required to raise the temperature by one degree Celsius. The relationship between heat and temperature change is usually expressed in the form shown below where c is the specific heat.

RECYCLING

Recycling: up-cycling vs down-cycling: up cycling is when you reuse something and use it to your advantage and don't recycle it. Down cycling is when you recycle something and it is down graded into something with lesser value.

Types of plastics and issues-Polyethylene Terephthalate is very famous type of plastic and its used in most things such, Plastic bottles,clothing and fuinture.

recycling mentals and paper:much plastic can be recycled. Plastic recycling faces one huge problem: plastic types must not be mixed for recycling, yet it is impossible to tell one type from another by sight or touch. Even a small amount of the wrong type of plastic can ruin the process. The plastic industry has responded to this problem by developing a series of markers,

SOIL

soil profile-This layer generally forms above the mineral soil or occurs in an organic soil profile. The O stands for organic matter. It is a surface layer dominated by the presence of large amounts of organic material derived from dead plant and/or animal residues which is in varying stages of decomposition

sand,silt and clay (soil texture)-Soil texture is a measure of the relative proporttion of the various soil particle size fractions in the soil. Soil texture can affect the physical and chemical propirties of the soil.

issues with soil and soil properties- A really big issue we are having right now is with topsoil half of topsoil on Earth has been lost over the span of 150 years witch is not even that long image the earth in another 150 years likle what are we going to do.

PLANTS NUTRIENTS

Plant nutrients- Micro and macro- Macronutrients are the structural and energy-giving caloric components of our foods that most of us are familiar with. They include carbohydrates, fats and proteins. Micronutrients are the vitamins, minerals, trace elements, Phytochemicals , and antioxidants that are essential for good health.

Fertilizers- Fertilizer helps plants to increase growth.the thing that the fertilizers do is that to provide extrea nutrients to enhance growth. The main components in fertilizers are nitrogen which helps leaf growth,phosphorus helps development of the roots and the seeds. also included is potassium helps strong stem growth and the movement of water in the plant.

Deficiencies and toxicities- Some of the toxicities are like alkalinity which impairs plant growth by obstructing root development and restricting water supply to the roots and another is Aluminum toxicity in soil inhibits the growth of plant shoots by causing nutrient deficiencies in Magnesium and Calcium.deficiencies such as Lack of Boron it affects the plant's biological processes.It can cause rolled leaves and death of growing points and reduced plant height.

Water

properties of water-Facts about water,Adhesion/Cohesion,Capillary action,Color, Compressbility ,Density and weight,Heat capacity and Meniscus those are the different properties of water.

types of water pollution-Types of water pollution. There are lots of types of water pollution because water come from lots of sources such as Nutrients Pollution. wastewater, fertilizers and sewage contain high levels of nutrients. Surface water pollutions,Oxygen Depleting.,Microbiological,Suspended Matter.,Chemical Water Pollution,Oil Spillage

water treatment(removing pollution)-It all depends on the source and type of pollution and there are three different sources.We did a lab in class to purify the water by putting sand,rocks,and a ton of coffe filters and it worked very well.

Water issues-The availability of water is a countries. But the scarcity at the heart of the global water crisis is rooted in power poverty and inequality not in physical availability. They is a big water issue in cali right now there water supply is getting really low and soon their going to be out and they do not know what to do right now.

ATOMS IONS

Atomic theory-In chemistry and physics, atomic theory is a scientific theory of the nature matter, which states that matter is composed is discrete units called atoms.

Ions-An ion is a charged atom or molecule.Atoms or groups of atoms with a positive or negative charge.Ion lost an electron and positively charged. 1 letter always capitalized 2 letter always lower case.

Ionic compounds-Ionic Compounds Are Balanced, Table salt is an example an ionic compound. Sodium and chlorineions come together to form sodium chloride or NaCl. The sodium atom in this compound loses an electron to become Na+ as the chlorine atom gains a electron to when it becomes Cl.

Credits:

Created with images by Comfreak - "all universe earth" • wilhei - "electricity voltage light" • slgckgc - "Got Recycling?" • kevin dooley - "Irrigated" • Nicholas_T - "Marion Brooks Natural Area (6)" • PhotoDoyl - "Rocky Waters" • NASA Goddard Photo and Video - "VISIONS: Seeing the Aurora in a New Light"

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