South Pacific Pilot Charts The winds

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EXPLANATION OF BLUE ROSES.

The wind roses in blue color are located in the centre of each 5 degree square. Each rose shows the distribution of the winds that have prevailed in the area over a considerable period of time. The wind percentages are summarized for calm and for the Cardinal and Intercardinal compass points. The arrows fly with the wind, indicating the direction from which the wind blew. The length of the shaft, measured from the outside of the circle to the end of the visible shaft (not necessarily to the end of the last feather), using the appropriate scale below gives the percentage of the total number of observations in which the wind has blown from that direction. The number of feathers shows the average force of the wind on the Beaufort Scale. The figure in the centre of the circle gives the percentage of calms. When the arrow is too long (over 29%) to fit in the 5 degree square, the percentage is indicated numerically on the shaft.

JANUARY

The images are by NASA. Collected by satellite radar over 10 year period. From its orbit onboard the QuikSCAT satellite, the SeaWinds instrument samples 90 percent of the Earth’s oceans every 24 hours. SeaWinds sends pulses of microwave radiation down to the windroughened surface and measures the backscatter of that radiation that returns to the satellite

SURFACE PRESSURE. This chart shows the average barometric pressure reduced to sea level. Isobars are solid blue lines for every 2.5 millibars difference in pressure.

TROPICAL CYCLONES The mean tracks of tropical storms and hurricanes are shown in red. These tracks represent averages, and movements of individual systems may vary widely

VISIBILITY Blue lines show percentages of observations reporting visibilities less than 2 miles

AIR TEMPERATURE. The mean air temperature (°C) in red lines is shown for every 2 degrees. All weather narratives refer to air temperature.

GALES. The red numerals in the center of each 5-degree square on this inset chart show the average percentage of ship reports in which winds of at least force 8 have been recorded for the month. In cases where the observation count is low the gale frequency may be nonrepresentative and therefore different from the values used in the text. Where 0 is given, gales may have been recorded, but too infrequently to give a percentage value.

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