Algeria By: Alyssa Evans

Location

There are two categories when talking about location. There is absolute location and relative location.

Here is a video describing the geographic theme, location.

Here is a video describing the geography of Algeria. He talks about some of the things I covered in the glideshow below. (Start video and play until 3:20)

An example of absolute location is that the capital of Algeria, Algiers, is located at 36.7538° N, 3.0588° E.

This is a picture of Algiers.

An example of relative location is that Algeria is boardered by the countries Morocco, Libya, Niger, Mali, Tunisia and Mauritania. Also, it's northern boarder touches the Mediterranean Sea.

Algeria is located in Northern Africa.

Algeria is filled with interesting landforms including tall plateaues, like the one in the picture. Some stretching more than 372 miles.

In fact, approximately 80% of the country is covered by the Sahara desert, as shown in the map above.

Here's a video with 7 more interesting facts about Algeria.

Since so much of the country is taken up by desert, that means the main climate is going to be very hot and dry days with cooler nights. But this isn't the only climate in the country.

On the opposite side of the mountain lies the beautiful beaches of the Mediterranean where the climate will be much more suitable to sustain life with mild rainy winters and hot dry summers.

And the northern most part of the country is taken over by the Atlas Mountains. The highest point is mount Tahat at 9850 ft above sea level.

About 90% of this country's population live north of the Atlas Mountains, on the shores of the Mediterranean, because the climate there is so mild compared to the climate of the area south of the mountain range, which is mostly desert.

The lowest point in all of Algeria is Lake Chott Melrhir at about 130 ft below sea level. It is also the largest salt lake in Algeria at about 2587 square miles. Another interesting fact about this lake is that for much of the year, there is little to no water.

Here is a picture of Chott Melrhir

Place

There are two things we look for when talking about place, that is human difference and physical differences.

Here is a video describing the geographic theme, place.

Human characteristics of Algeria

Natural resources

The main natural resources found in Algeria are petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, phosphates, uranium, lead and zinc.

Economy

Algeria's economy is based off of the production of gas, considering it's the worlds second biggest exporter of gas.

This is a graph showing the amount of gas exported from Algeria.

Government

Algeria's government is pretty close to the one we have here in the United States. They are a multiparty republic. The president (in the picture) is elected by popular vote for a five year term. The president has the constitutional authority to appoint and dismiss cabinet members and the prime minister.

Additional information. Algeria oh is no money to other countries, but one in for Algerians live on less than a dollar a day. Introduced by the government in 1974, Algeria has free national healthcare. 

Cultural groups

Berbers are any of the descendants of the pre-Arab inhabitants of North Africa. They live in scattered communities across Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, Egypt, Mali, Niger, and Mauretania.

This is a Berber tent found in the Sahara.

Arabs

Algerian Turks are ethnic Turks who constitute a minority group in Algeria. During Ottoman rule, Turks moved to the region giving birth to a people called "Kouloughlis", those of mixed Turkish and central Maghrebis blood.

Religions

Islam is the majority religion in Algeria making up about 99% of the population. The vast majority of citizens are Sunni Muslims.

Pentecostal Protestants are very similar to Christians. There are also almost 500,000 Christians, mostly pentecostal protestants.

In the 14th century, with the deterioration of conditions in Spain, many Spanish Jews moved to Algeria. Since Algeria gained independence, there have been a decline in the Jewish community in Algeria.

Holidays and traditions

Mawlid is an Arabic word which means ‘place and time of birth’ but in Islamic literature Mawlid-un-Nabbiyi means ‘Birth of the Prophet’. It is believed that Muhammad, the last Prophet of Islam, was born in the year 569 A.D when Abraha, the Abyssinian governor of Yemen, attacked Mecca in order to destroy the Ka’bah.

Sbiba festival

"The festival is geared towards conserving traditions and encouraging its transmission to young ones in order to assure its existence from generation to generation. Considered as an artistic touareg legacy, the festival helps to preserve and maintain contacts between the Touareg population with popular dances presented by those from ksour “Azelouaz” and “El-Mihane” which have been inherited from their ancestors as part of their culture."

Anniversary of the revolution November 1

Human-environment interaction

Human-environment interaction is the relationship between people and their environment.

Here is a video explaining the geographic theme, human-environment interaction

Crops and agriculture

There isn't much soil that is suitable for agriculture in this country but they do still grow an assortment of crops such as wheat, barley, grapes, olives, dates and tobacco.

Jobs

About 14% of the population works in agriculture.

Nearly 32% of Algerians work in government jobs.

Approximately 13% work in various industrial jobs.

And 10% of people work in construction or public service jobs.

Unfortunately, the unemployment rate in Algeria has risen to 10.5% within the last 6 months.

Endangered species

Mediterranean Monk Seals are an endangered species in Algeria. They are suffering due to overfishing and pollution in the Mediterranean Sea.

Barbary Macaques are another one of the species that is endangered. 3/4 of the entire population of this species lives in the middle Atlas Mountains and are seen as pests to the coal farmers but are also poached for live pets.

The Algerian Fir is also an endangered species in Algeria. They are endangered because of their narrow habitat range, but mostly threats from overgrazing, fires and deforestation.

Environmental problems

Deforestation is a problem all over the world and a big reason why many species of plants and animals have been becoming endangered or even extinct.

Encroachment of the Sahara desert is a very very big problem for the people living in the northern part of the Sahara because it is destroying the little fertile soil that they have making food supplies scarce and harder to grow. Luckily, they are working on ways to fix that. In 1975 the government began a project to erect a "green wall" of trees and vegetation 930 miles long, 12 miles wide, along the northern fringes of the desert to impede desertification.

Water shortages and pollution is a major problem in all of Africa. In Algeria, they have established a water management policy to improve services to population centers through regional transfers and dams and even through desalination of sea water.

Region

Regions are areas that can be grouped together by a set of things special to that area.

Here is a video explaining the geographic theme region.

Schools and education

Compulsory education for children ages 6-15. The school system is very basic with three options; Basic, Secondary and technical secondary.

Basic education or fundamental school, entitles a length of 9 years starting at age 6 through age 15. At the end they will receive a diploma.

General secondary is a three year program for teenagers 15-18 years old. They will also receive a diploma known as the Bachelors diploma of secondary school.

Technical secondary is also three years and you graduate with a technical bachelors degree.

Population

The estimated population of Algeria is 40,633,000 making it the third most populous country in the world.

The population density of Algeria is 16.65 people per sq. km of land area.

Algeria is 919,595 square miles making it the 10th largest country in the world.

Algeria can fit inside the United States approximately 4 times!

The per capita GDP in Algeria is $7,179.00

The life expectancy on men in Algeria is about 73.8 years. For women it is 77.5 years.

The literacy rate in Algeria is 79.6%

Movement

The moving of thing such as people, cultures, religions, foods, ideas and other products.

Here is a video describing the geographical themes of movement.

Imports and exports

Exports: petroleum, natural gas, electronics and petroleum

Imports: mostly electronics and machinery

All about the flag

The national flag consists of 2 equal vertical bars- green on the left, white on the right- with a red 5 pointed star within a red crescent centered over the two colored bars.

Green represents Islam and is believed to be the favorite color of the Islamic prophet, Muhammad.

White symbolizes peace and purity.

Red represents liberty and the blood shed and sacrifice of martyrs who died in struggle for independence of Alger.

The crescent and star are Islamic symbols of the majority religion of Algeria.

The fight for independence

The casualties from the Algerian war included 100,000 Muslims, 10,000 French soldiers and thousands of European colonists. The European Algerians wanted integration with France, and they launched massive protests. The divide between the European Algerians and Muslims grew wider, and the country was on the brink of a civil war. Charles de Gaulle was appointed prime minister after World War II, and he granted Muslims the full rights of French citizenship. He was not for the integration of Algeria and announced that the future of Algeria should be decided by its people. Peace talks between France and the FLN began in 1961. Europeans had the option of returning to their native country, remaining foreigners in Algeria or obtaining citizenship. After the signing of the peace treaty, at least 1 million Europeans moved out of Algeria.

Transportation

Roads are most adequate in the Tell zone, but in the mountainous and rural areas, they are relatively poor. In 2002 there were 104,000 km (64,625 mi) of roads, of which about 71,656 km (44,527 mi) were paved, including 640 km (398 mi) of expressways. In 2003, there were 372,300 passenger cars and 528,000 commercial vehicles. The French colonial administration built a good road system, partly for military purposes, which after independence was allowed to deteriorate to some extent; however, new roads have been built linking the Sahara oil fields with the coast. Algeria's portion of the trans-Saharan highway, formally known as the Road of African Unity, stretching about 420 km (260 mi) from Hassi Marroket to the Niger border south of Tamanrasset, was completed in 1985.

Algiers is the principal seaport. Other significant ports are Arzew, Bejaïa (Bougie), Skikda (a large gas-exporting center also known as Philippeville), Oran, Annaba, Ghazaouet, and Mostaganem. Algeria's merchant fleet numbered 56 ships of 1,000 GRT or over, totaling 837,676 GRT as of 2005

Current events

Two trains collide

CNN)Scores of passengers were injured when two trains collided in Algeria on Saturday. The crash happened around 4 p.m. (11 a.m. ET) near the city of Boudouaou, according to the state-run Algeria Press Service. It occurred at the Boudouaou station when a train headed for the province of Setif, 300 km (186 miles) east of Algiers, caught up with a train ahead that was headed for the town of Thenia, according to the National Rail Transport Company. At least 78 people were injured in the collision, two of them seriously, the news agency said.

Algeria plans to boost oil output by 30%

Algeria has increased its oil output at the Hassi Messaoud and Ourhoud oil fields over the last few months in an effort to compensate for lost revenue.

Credits:

Created with images by Unsplash - "desert sand dune" • jase™ - "|~Sun, sand and sea~|"

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