Independent Assortment By: michaela Hallman


  • Nondisjunction: a chromosomal mutation that produces an offspring with an incorrect number of chromosomes
  • Recessive Genes: a gene that can be masked by a dominant gene
  • Dominant Genes: a gene that is more likely to show up in the offspring
  • Somatic Cell: a body cell
  • Germ cell: a cell containing half the number of chromosomes of a somatic cell and able to unite with one from the opposite sex to form a new individual; a gamete.

Mitosis vs. Meiosis

Mitosis is used for asexual reproduction. Meiosis is used during sexual reproduction. Mitosis contains the steps of prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase only once. As for meiosis, those steps are done twice during Meiosis I and Meiosis II.

Karyotype, genotype, and phenotype

A karyotype is the number and visual appearance of the chromosomes in the cell nuclei of an organism. It is a picture of what someone's chromosomes look like. Genotype is an organism's full hereditary information. The phenotype is an organism's properties, such as behavior and development. Since the genotype is the information, it affects the behaviors of an organism.

Mutations that occur in the Chromosomes

  • Klinefelter's Syndrome: This syndrome can sometimes be called XXY syndrome as well. When this mutation occurs, there is an extra X chromosome that a male is born with. This gene is neither dominant or recessive, and the effects are that the estrogen is higher than normal, and they become more feminine. This comes from germ cells.
  • Down Syndrome: This mutation occurs in the 21st chromosome. This syndrome can cause changes in appearance and behavior. Down syndrome is recessive and from germ cells.
  • Colorblindness: Color blindness is a syndrome that makes it hard to see certain colors. Red-green color blindness is a sex linked recessive trait, while blue-yellow color blindness is an autosomal dominant trait. It is from somatic cells.
  • Turner Syndrome: This syndrome mostly affects females. People with this syndrome have a single X chromosome, which causes infertility. Also, they are not attracted to anyone. This syndrome is caused by germ cell, and it is neither dominant or recessive because it is a chromosomal disease instead of a genetic one.


Created with images by Hey Paul Studios - "Human Chromosome Chart"

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