One of the major challenges in forest management is the sustanaibility of the resources itself, while the challenge for the conservation is to secure minimum set of strategically located primary forests in representatives areas having high diversity.
Sustainable forest management (SFM) has been identified as essential to achieving sustainable development.
Malaysia - Malaysia has a system of totally protected areas including national parks, state parks, wildlife sanctuary and a system to protect its biodiversity, species, and habitat. These forests are by far much larger in area than the other protected areas and amounts to 3.49 million ha. Peninsular Malaysia has 40 protected areas (PAs) distributed in all eleven States with a total area of 751,413 ha. or 5% of the land area. Other methods are ex-situ and in-situ conservation.
International - methods used are;
- selective logging,
- controlled burn which should be done in Indonesia, and
- wildlife management areas. Special regulations and rules applies on all wildlife management areas across the United States. Wildlife management areas are accessible to the public for many recreational uses.
- control of forest fires,
- control of illegal harvesting,
- control of predation on archaeological sites, and applications of other measures for recuperating forest cover.
- unmanaged reacreational - the use of the forested lands by the public at an uncontrolled rate. As recreational use as increased among forests, foresters have noticed an increase in land management that is needed.
- increasing population - more land are explored and used to build shelters and for city development.