Biology: Chapter XII The Cell cycle

The Cell Cycle is the series of events inside of a cell leading to the cell's division.

The result is the production of two daughter cells and duplicated DNA

Interphase is the phase of the cell cycle in which the cell copies its DNA in preparation for mitosis.

This is also the stage in which the cell collects nutrients and metabolizes it. Interphase is also called the cell's resting phase.

Prophase is the first stage of cell division, preceeding metaphase, in which the chromosomes become visible as paired chromatids and the nuclear envelope disappears.

The chromosomes are two rod-shaped structures that appear during prophase.

Metaphase is the second stage in the cycle in whichthe chromosomes, which are carrying genetic information, align in the equator of the cell before being separated into each of the two daughter cells.

Metaphase is also one of the cell's checkpoints

Anaphase is the third stage of the cell cycle in which the chromosomes diverge and gravitate towards opposite ends of the cell.

This is also the stage where the chromosomes reach their maximum condensation.

Telophase is the final stage of the cell cycle in which two daughter nuclei form in each daughter cell, and phosphatases de-phosphorylate the nuclear lamins at the ends of the cell.

This forms nuclear envelopes around each nucleus from components of the parent cell's nuclear envelope.

A telomere is a region that constantly repeats nucleotide sequences at each end of a chromosome.

This protects the end of the chromosome from deterioration or from fusion with neighboring chromosomes.

The sequence of nucleotides in telomeres is TTAGGG, with its complementary DNA strand translating to AATCCC

Cancer is a disease in which destructive and abnormal cells uncontrollably multiply.

This can cause serious tissue damage. The tissue can sometimes even be destroyed.

Cancer normally begins as a tumor, but rapidly grows and turns into cancer.

Infections and exposure to ionizing radiation can also lead to cancer.

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