TOTO~ is a small dog that seems to go unnoticed, it is Toto who reveals what a fraud the Wizard is. It is thought that Toto also represents average Americans.
DOROTHY~ represents American values or people. She proves to be loyal, resourceful and determined. Another speculation was that she represents the U.S. president Theodore Roosevelt. Some people put more faith in this theory more than the other one due to similarnames (The-o-dore and Dor-o-thy).
She is an all-American girl who represents virtuous, hard-working citizens who were attracted to radical politics because they realized things had gone terribly wrong and that something needed to change.
TIN MAN~the American industrial worker, who had been exploited and treated like just another piece of machinery by rich and powerful employers.The Tin Man was immobile and rusted, which is something many factory workers felt when many businesses began to shut down due to a national depression. They felt helpless after they lost their jobs.
Cowardly Lion~The Cowardly Lion – this was William Jennings Bryan, the Populist and Democratic candidate for president in 1896 and 1900, who was nicknamed “The Lion” for his fiery rhetoric and called a coward by many for his refusal to support America’s decision to go to war with Spain in 1898.Bryan was a supporter of the free silver movement. It is said that the Cowardly Lion represents Bryan, who was viewed as someone having a load roar, but no power or bite.
SCARECROW~ the American farmer, who was often known as not being able to read or write and brain-dead by elite policymakers who feared their radical activism and support for Populist-style reforms.is a representation of industrial workers who often experienced being dehumanized.represents western farmers. He complained about not having a brain but wound up as the most adept problem solver among the four travelers.
YELLOW BRICK ROAD~ is a representation of the gold standard, with the gold road leading to power. Monetary policy was a huge political issue at the time, with big businessmen generally supporting tight money and the gold standard while reformers favored an enlargement of the money supply through the coinage of silver or the issuance of paper money
Oz~ the abbreviation for ounce, which was significant because bimetallists wanted silver coined along with gold at a ratio of sixteen ounces of silver for each ounces of gold
a stand-in for Wall Street financiers, eastern elite big businessmen, and Washington politicians.
western industrialists, bankers, and the railroads.
Silver is related to the monetary political issues of the time where farmers want to have the dollar’s value to have fixed ratios for both silver and gold. Another speculation is that the silver slippers are a representation of the power to vote.
the fate of Native Americans who had been forced from their land by Americans migrating
Henry was a well known farmer and editor for a leading farm magazine in the late 1800s. He was called Uncle Henry by most everyone.
The little people, the munchkins, are said to represent the common people or ordinary U.S. citizens. The Lollipop Guild is seen as representing child labor.
the tornado represents the free silver movement or political upheaval. During the time that the story was written, American farmers were suffering from the effects of federal deflation. Their debts were growing larger as they were getting less money for their crops and other goods. The farmers wanted the dollar value to have fixed ratios of both gold and silver. Some politicians supported this movement and others didn’t.