Postwar Uncertainty Section 1

A New Revolution in Science

A New Revolution in Science The ideas of Albert Einstein and Sigmund Freud had an enormous impact on the 20th century. These thinkers were part of a scientific revolution as important as that brought about centuries earlier by Copernicus and Galileo.

Impact of Einstein’s Theory of Relativity

Influence of Freudian Psychology

Literature in the 1920s

Writers Reflect Society’s Concerns

Thinkers React to Uncertainties

Revolution in the Arts


Artists Rebel Against Tradition

Composers Try New Styles

Society Challenges Convention

Women’s Roles Change

Technological Advances Improve Life

During World War I, scientists developed new drugs and medical treatments that : were put to use to improve transportation and communication after the war.

The Automobile Alters Society

Airplanes Transform Travel

Radio and Movies Dominate Popular Entertainment

A Worldwide Depression

section 2

Post war Europe

In both human suffering and economic terms, the cost of World War I was immense.In both human suffering and economic terms, the cost of World War I was immense.

Unstable New Democracies

Everyone wanted to sell stocks and no one wanted to buy. Prices plunged to a new low on Tuesday, October 29. A record 16 million stocks were sold. Then the market collapsed.

The Weimar Republic

Inflation Causes Crisis in Germany

The Dawes Plan provided for a $200 million loan from American banks to stabilize German currency and strengthen its economy. it attracted more loans and investments from the United States. By 1929, German factories were producing as much as they had before the war.

Attempts at Economic Stability

Efforts at a Lasting Peace

In 1928, the hopes raised by the “spirit of Locarno” led to the Kellogg-Briand peace pact. Frank Kellogg, the U.S. Secretary of State, arranged this agreement with France’s Briand. The League of Nations, the obvious choice as enforcer, had no armed forces. The refusal of the United States to join the League also weakened it. Nonetheless, the peace agreements seemed a good start.

Financial Collapse

A Flawed U.S. Economy

In the late 1920s, American economic prosperity largely sustained the world economy. If the U.S. economy weakened, the whole world’s economic system might collapse. In 1929, it did.

The Great Depression

A Global Depression : Worried American bankers demanded repayment of their overseas loans, and American investors withdrew their money from Europe.

Effects Throughout the World: In Asia, both farmers and urban workers suffered as the value of exports fell by half between 1929 and 1931. The crash was felt heavily in Latin America as well.

The World Confronts the Crisis: s. Each country met the crisis in its own way.

Britain Takes Steps to Improve Its Economy

France Responds to Economic Crisis : At Wall Street's New York Stock Exchange, optimism about the booming U.S economy showed in soaring prices for stocks. To get in on the boom, many middle-income people began buying stocks on margin.

Socialist Governments Find Solutions: in September 1929, some investors began to think that stock prices were unnaturally high. They started selling their stocks, believing that the prices would soon go down. By Thursday, October 24, the gradual lowering of stock prices had become an all-out slide downward.

Recovery in the United States: The Depression hit Britain severely. British voters elected a multiparty coalition, the National Government. It passed high protective tariffs, increased taxes, and regulated the currency.

Fascism Rises in Europe

Sec 3

Fascism’s Rise in Italy: Both systems were ruled by dictators who allowed only their own political party (one-party rule). Both denied individual rights. In both, the state was supreme. Neither practiced any kind of democracy. However, unlike Communists,

Mussolini Takes Control: The economic crisis contributed to political instability. In 1933, 5 coalition governments formed and fell. Many political leaders were frightened by the growth of anti-democratic forces both in France and other parts of Europe. So in 1936, moderates, Socialists, and Communists formed a coalition.

II duce's Leadership: The Popular Front passed a series of reforms to help the workers. Unfortunately, price increases quickly offset wage gains. Unemployment remained high.

Hitler Rises to Power in Germany

The Rise of the Nazis: As European and U.S demand for such Latin American products as sugar, beef, and copper dropped, prices collapsed. The attempt failed, and Hitler was arrested. He was: The attempt failed, and Hitler was arrested.

Hitler Becomes Chancellor

In January 1933, they believed they could control hitler and use him for there own purposes. they advised president paul von Hidenburg to name hitler chancellor. Hitler was one of the highest leader.

The Führer Is Supreme : Books that did not conform to Nazi beliefs were burned in huge bonfires. Churches were forbidden to criticize the Nazis or the government.

Hitler Makes War on the Jews: This led to a wave of anti-Semitism across Germany. Beginning in 1933, the Nazis passed laws depriving Jews of most of their rights. Violence against Jews mounted.

Other Countries Fall to Dictators Only in European nations with strong democratic traditions Britain, France, and the Scandinavian countries did democracy survive.


Aggressors Invade Nations

section 4


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