Brown vs. Board of Education
Linda Brown, a black third grader, had to walk one mile through a railroad yard just to get to her school every single day, but there was a white only school around seven blocks away. Her father tried to enroll her in the white school but they denied her. Her father went to NAACP, they requested that a change to be made forbid segregation in Topeka public schools. The case went to the supreme court, at first they decided not to make a decision. Then, they finally on May 17th, decided that all schools shouldn't be segregated.
Emmett Till was visiting his family in Money, Mississippi. Emmett was 14-years old at the time. He was an African American from Chicago, who was brutally murdered for "flirting" with a white woman four days before his death. Carolyn Bryant told her husband that a black man whistled at her and she immediately told her husband and her brother. They made Emmett carry a 75-pound cotton-gin fan to the bank of the Tallahatchie River and then commanded him to take off his clothes, then the two men nearly beat him to death, took out his eye, shot him in the head, and then they threw his body, and threw his body into the river. Exactly three days later, his body was found but was unrecognizable. Till's mother was so disgusted after seeing the body, she had decided to have an open-casket funeral for the whole world too see what a coulple of racist murderers had done to her only child. About two weeks later after Emmett’s body was buried, the two culprits Milam and Bryant went on trial in a segregated courthouse in Sumner, Mississippi. On September 23, an all-white jury discussed for less than an hour, they concluded they were innocent by explaining that they believed the state had failed to prove the identity of the body. After the trial, a bunch of people around the country were outraged by the racial injustice and also how the state decided not to accuse Milam and Bryant on a separate charge of kidnapping. The Emmett Till murder trial brought attention to the brutality of segregation in the South and was a kickstart of the African American civil rights movement.
Montgomery Bus Boycott:
The Montgomery Bus Boycott was a way in which African Americans refused to ride city buses in Montgomery, Alabama, to protest segregated seating. This effort lasted from December 5, 1955, to December 20, 1956, and is regarded as the first large-scale demonstration against segregation in the U.S. On December 1, 1955, exactly four days before the boycott began, Rosa Parks, a black woman, refused to give her seat to a white person. She was later arrested and fined. The U.S. Supreme Court finally ordered Montgomery to desegregate its bus system. One of the leaders of the boycott, was a young pastor named Martin Luther King Jr. This man later emerged as a national leader of the civil rights movement.
Little Rock 9
Nine black students enrolled at all-white Central High School in Little Rock, Arkansas, in September 1957. On September 4, 1957, the kids’ first day of classes at Central High, a racist Governor named Orval Faubus of Arkansas called in the National Guard to prevent the black students from entering the school. Days later, President Dwight D. Eisenhower sent in the Army to escort the “Little Rock Nine” into the school, then they started their first full day of classes on September 25. Ernest Green, Carlotta Walls, Thelma Mothershed, Elizabeth Eckford, Terrace Roberts, Gloria Ray, Jefferson Thomas, Melba Pattillo, and Minnijean Brown. All of these kids were part of the “Little Rock 9”, The governor of Arkansas, Eisenhower, NAACP, and Daisy Bates who was an African American civil rights activist, she coordinated the integration of the Little Rock Central High School. In September 1958, one year after Central High was integrated, then Faubus. closed all of Little Rock’s high schools for the entire year. He wanted to pend a public vote. Little Rock’s citizens voted 19,470 to 7,561 against integration and the schools remained closed.
This sit-in was a non-violent protest against segregation in lunch areas or restaurants. Most of the people participatating were arrested for disturbance of peace, trespassing, or disorderly conduct, or for just being black. This made a lasting impact on other establishments to end segregation.
On May 4, 1961, a pack of 13 African-American and white civil rights activists created the Freedom Rides, which was a series of bus trips through the South to protest against segregation in interstate bus terminals. They were recruited by the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE), which was a U.S. civil rights group. They later departed from Washington, D.C. The Freedom Riders tried to use “whites-only” restrooms and lunch counters. The group encountered tremendous violence from angry whites. In September 1961, the Interstate Commerce Commission proposed regulations prohibiting segregation in bus and train stations nationwide.
James Meredith wanted to enroll in the University of Mississippi. He was denied acceptance due to his skin color. Following this, James took the university to court in a series of legal trials, which led all the way to the Supreme Court, who ruled in favor of James. After James enrolled riots started, leaving two dead bystanders. leaving two bystanders dead. James became the first African American enrolled at the University Mississippi due to him winning in court.
King's Letter in Jail
King was was arrested and thrown into solitary confinement Ud to breaking a law, the law was that he could no longer create public gatherings without permit. When he was arrested, he was denied a lawyer and was not allowed to contact his wife, until John F. Kennedy helped. King did not want to be bailed out of jail by his supporters, he agreed to a longer stay in jail to draw more attention to the suffrage of blacks. King was Isolated in his cell, so he began working on a response. He did not use any notes or research, he drafted a great defense paper defending his use of nonviolent actions. The letter was 7,000 words, quoting religious and political philosophers. Due to his terrific letter, King was released on April 20, four days after writing the letter. Two weeks later, around 1,000 schoolchildren participating in the “Children’s Crusade,” the kids skipped school to march through the city streets for racial equality. Birmingham’s Commissioner of Public Safety Eugene “Bull” Connor, who King had criticized in his letter for his brutal tactics, ordered fire hoses and police dogs be unleashed upon on the children and protesters. 600 people were jailed on the first day. The whole event was broadcasted on television around the world. Birmingham was chaos, local police were to agree with King and agree, but not all, of his demands. On June 11, President Kennedy told the nation of his plans to present his civil rights legislation to Congress.
I Have Dream
On the Lincoln Memorial in Washington, D.C., Martin Luther King, Jr., spoke to about 250,000 people, they were all attending the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom. The people were of different backgrounds, but came together in the capital to demand voting rights and equal opportunity for African Americans and to help for an end to all racial segregation and discrimination. A year after the March on Washington, the civil rights movement accomplished two of its greatest and most important successes. One was the creation of the 24th Amendment, this abolished the poll tax and eliminated the a barrier to poor African American voters in the South. King later achieved a great accomplishment because of his speech, in October 1964 he was given the Nobel Peace Prize.
Baptist Church Bombing
On September 15, a bomb set off before sunday services at the Sixteenth Street Baptist Church. This attack killed four girls between the ages 14 and 11. This event helped draw out national attention to the racism in the south. The man responsible was Thomas Edwin Blanton Jr man active KKK member.
In 1964, the Congress on Racial Equality (CORE) and Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) civil rights organizations, organized a voter registration drive, which became known as the Mississippi Summer Project, or Freedom Summer for short, this drive was aimed at major increasing voter registration in Mississippi. The organization faced a planned series of attacks; these included arson, beatings, false arrest and the murder of at least three civil rights activists, from the Ku Klux Klan, police, and state and local authorities. The Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965 passed Congress in part because lawmakers had been educated about these issues during Freedom Summer.
Civil Rights Murders
The Mississippi Civil Rights Murders' victims are 3 men , one black and two white . These men were abducted and killed by the KKK. The men were workers were working to get more black voters in the south during Freedom summer. They were then and then at night, they were released to the KKK by corrupt law enforcement. The men responsible were tried and put into prison. This got people's attention because it showed how extensive racism really was, even if you were white and still supported civil rights in the south you would be treated the same as a black man.
The march from Selma to Montgomery was a peaceful response and protest against racism. The march also aimed at the fact that no omen is allowing blacks to vote even though, the law said they can. King and the SCLC helped lead and organize the march. Unfortunately, the march was met with brutal force and oppression by law enforcement. This event helped gained awareness and one year later, the Voting Rights Act was signed.
In 1965 in a black neighborhood in Watts, Los Angeles, racial tension reached a peak after two white policemen fight with a black motorist accused of drunk driving. A crowd gathered to watch the arrest and soon grew angry by what they believed to be yet another incident of a racially motivated arrest. A riot soon broke out, the rioters looted stores, torched buildings, and beat whites, as snipers fired at police and firefighters. With the help of thousands of National Guardsmen, order was restored on August 16. This was a very damaging riot, five days of violence left 34 dead, 1,032 injured, about 4,000 arrested, and $40 million worth of property damaged. The Watts riot was the worst riot in 20 years.
Assassination of MLK
Martin Luther King Jr. was shot at a hotel in April 4, 1968. The hotel was in Memphis. .King was rushed to the hospital but he died an hour later. The man who shot him was James Ear, Ray, he was later found caught after several months. He was sentenced to 99 years in prison, he pleaded guilty. His death caused aggression against whites.
Malcolm X's Assassination
On Feb. 21, 1965, Malcolm X was assassinated by the Nation of Islam. He was about to address his new Organization of Afro-American Unity at the Audubon Ballroom in Harlem. He was 39 when he died. His death led to many conspiracies of his death due to his constant bickering with Elijah Muhammad.
"Central High School Integrated." History.com. A&E Television Networks, n.d. Web. 19 Apr. 2017.
History.com Staff. "Freedom Rides." History.com. A&E Television Networks, 2010. Web. 19 Apr. 2017.
History.com Staff. "Freedom Summer." History.com. A&E Television Networks, 2009. Web. 19 Apr. 2017.
History.com Staff. "Montgomery Bus Boycott." History.com. A&E Television Networks, 2010. Web. 19 Apr. 2017.
"King Speaks to March on Washington." History.com. A&E Television Networks, n.d. Web. 19 Apr. 2017.
"Malcolm X." Biography.com. A&E Networks Television, 05 Oct. 2016. Web. 19 Apr. 2017.
"Malcolm X." Biography.com. A&E Networks Television, 05 Oct. 2016. Web. 19 Apr. 2017.
Maranzani, Barbara. "King's Letter from Birmingham Jail, 50 Years Later." History.com. A&E Television Networks, 16 Apr. 2013. Web. 19 Apr. 2017.
"Watts Riot Begins." History.com. A&E Television Networks, n.d. Web. 19 Apr. 2017.
History.com Staff. "Martin Luther King Jr Assassination." History.com. A&E Television Networks, 2010. Web. 19 Apr. 2017.
History.com Staff. "Selma to Montgomery March." History.com. A&E Television Networks, 2010. Web. 19 Apr. 2017.
History.com Staff. "Slain Civil Rights Workers Found." History.com. A&E Television Networks, n.d. Web. 19 Apr. 2017.
History.com Staff. "Birmingham Church Bombing." History.com. A&E Television Networks, 2010. Web. 19 Apr. 2017.
History.com Staff. "Medgar Evers Assassinated." History.com. A&E Television Networks, n.d. Web. 19 Apr. 2017.
History.com Staff. "The Integration of Ole Miss." History.com. A&E Television Networks, 2010. Web. 19 Apr. 2017.
History.com Staff. "The Greensboro Sit-In." History.com. A&E Television Networks, 2010. Web. 19 Apr. 2017.
"Brown V.s Board of Education." PBS. Public Broadcasting Service, n.d. Web. 19 Apr. 2017.