Biotech PCr and electrophoresis

Polimerace chain reactions are basically a way to take a specific piece of DNA so scientists can perform specific procedures and experiments. It is still used today and is mainly used now to diagnose genetic diseases and detect low levels of viral infection. There is also Gel electrophoresis which is also used to separate molecules like DNA and RNA. They do pretty much the same job, just through a different method of experimentation.

Cloning is the simple process of copying one organisms DNA and duplicating it to create the exact same organism. It is done by taking an empty egg cell and put a donor cell into it fertilizing the egg cell. Some cloning is mainly used to understand different diseases through experiments, though there are some speculations as to what it can further be used for. There is some controversy though as to how cloning is used. For instance there is a lot of controversy around human cloning and it's uses in medical research. Some have speculated that it would be unnatural and inhuman but all of that is still yet to be resolved since human trials haven't been tested yet.

Stem Cell Research

Stem cells are cells in the body that can become any other cell. Most of stem cell research is based around developing stem cells to form fully working organs for people in need of them. They are also used for treating diseases such as diabetes, heart disease, and other various things. Embryonic stem cells are the main stem cells that scientist use because they can become any other cell in the body, but there is controversy around this concerning the embryo. Some find that using unborn embryos is considered child murder and is inhuman.

Genetically modified organisms

They are organisms that have been genetically modified to better benefit people for nutritional value. For instance some genetic modifications can be found in some modern day crops operating as pesticides. Also most live stock are genetically modified to supply more meet often just by increasing their muscle mass. Another benefit is that most of the meat is more resistant to heat and the cold therefore it doesn't spoil as easily/ fast. The process of making a gmo is simple, it's a simple matter of just taking a gene from one organism and putting it in another. There is conflict though as to how certain animals and plants are affected. For one thing some are concerned that some of the gene transfer in plants will have negative affects on the human body.

Personal Ancestry/paternity kit

Personal ancestry is basically looking up your own past lineage throughout the decades. Usually done through DNA tests that require your DNA. Paternity testing also requires your DNA but is done in a different way. Most paternity test will use a special chemical process that breaks open the collection of cells which separates the DNA from the nucleus. An extraction robot uses more chemicals to transfer the DNA mixture to tiny silicon nano beads. DNA sticks to the beads while the other cell parts are washed away. The rest of the process is lengthy and tedious but in the end comes down to a simple matching process.

DNA fingerprinting

Is a lab technique used to establish a link between biological evidence and suspect in a crime investigation. It's a simple method of isolating and identifying variable elements within the base pair sequence of DNA. Crime scene investigation as a whole though is a tedious process that involves documentation of the scene and the different conditions at the scene, and collection of physical evidence. Most of the people responsible for analyzing the physical evidence are forensics, who test some of the evidence to see if there's any left over DNA or any clue as to how the crime scene went down.

Plasmids/recombinant DNA/ transgenic organisms

Small, circular, double stranded DNA molecule that is distinct from a cells chromosome DNA. Recombinant DNA being DNA that has been formed artificially by combining constituents from different organisms. Usually used in health and nutrition/ pharmaceuticals. Transgenic organisms are basically the same as gmo's and basically carry the same functions as explained before.

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