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美国一定要在与中共国的科技战中胜出 【中英对照翻译】

新闻来源:gate stone institute《美国智库石门研究所》;作者:Laurence A. Franklin;发布时间:September 28, 2020 / 2020年9月28日

翻译:十里春风;简评:十里春风/TCC;校对:TCC;审核:海阔天空;Page:拱卒

简评:

近日,前美国国防部官员劳伦斯 A.富兰克林(Lawrence A. Franklin)在纽约智库门石研究所网站发表署名文章,对中美正在进行的“技术战”条分缕析,晓以利害。文中道出了中共国的野心及其在人工智能与量子计算机上的进展。中共以举国之力发展他们认为的关键领域,用偷、抢、骗的方式抄袭美国以及全球的先进技术,在某些局部领域竟然拥有了领先优势。但总体而言,中共令人窒息的科研体系、对人才创造力的扼杀以及在核心关键技术尤其是半导体芯片技术上的缺失,使得中共很难与美国实力匹敌。2020年在不足一个月时间内,中共接连两次火箭发射失败,其科研实力由此可见一斑。但美国绝对不能小瞧中共,对 中共偷骗抢、蓝金黄的旁门左道掉以轻心。如果这些高新技术落入邪恶中共之手,后果难以想象!

原文翻译:

U.S. and China: Emerging Technologies and the Race to Control the Future

美国&中国:新兴技术与控制未来的竞赛

The United States is in a "Tech War" with China, the victor will control the global dissemination of information. The winner will also write the world's rules and standards for emerging technologies in the digital economy.

美国与中国正在进行一场“技术战”,胜者会控制全球的信息传播,并且主导数字经济时代新兴技术世界的规则和标准。

Chinese Communist Party (CCP) Chairman Xi Jinping threw down the gauntlet to the U.S. in a May 2017 speech, where he outlined the plan for establishing a Chinese-supervised "Digital Silk Road." President Xi realizes that the information dimension of modern war is bound up with China's apparent overall objective of unseating the United States as the leader of the existing liberal democratic world order.

中共国主席习近平在2017年5月发表讲话,对美国公开挑战,并描述了搭建一条由中共国主导的“数字丝绸之路”的计划。习主席意识到了,现代战争的信息维度与其推翻美国在现存自由民主世界秩序领导者的总体目标是息息相关的。

Pictured: China's Long March-5 rocket, carrying an orbiter, lander and rover to Mars, lifts off from the Wenchang Space Launch Centre in Hainan Province on July 23, 2020. (Photo by Noel Celis/AFP via Getty Images) 2020年7月23日,载有轨道器,着陆器和漫游器的中国长征5号运载火箭从海南文昌空间发射中心升空。(图片来源:盖提图片社 作者:Noel Celis/AFP)

Xi seemingly wants to secure a commanding lead in the emerging hi-tech disciplines to create a sense of inevitability about China's rise to world domination. The U.S. still has the time, talent and resources to secure a victory over China in this contest for global leadership, provided that the U.S. has the will, self-discipline and flexibility to institute a total societal mobilization over decades.

习似乎想要确保在新兴高科技领域的领导地位,为中共国崛起成为世界的主导者酝酿一种“这是不可避免”的感觉。美国若利用这几十年来的意愿、自律和灵活性来展开一场全面的社会动员,就仍然有时间,人才和资源,在这场对于全球领导者的竞逐中,打赢中共国获胜。

China specialists such as Gordon Chang and policy officers in the Trump Administration have sought to educate the American public on how China came to emerge as a potent challenger to U.S. global primacy in hi-tech disciplines. Many of the methods by which China rose to contender status include stealing intellectual property on a massive scale, with the collusion, sadly, of many Americans; forced transfer of entrepreneurial secrets of U.S. firms as a prerequisite to operating in the Chinese market; meticulous, long-term planning to secure China's national priorities; legal and illegal recruitment of foreign human talent, and lavish state support for Chinese hi-tech firms.

一些中共国问题专家如章家敦和川普政府的方针制定幕僚已经在寻求教育美国公众,让他们知晓中共国如何在高科技领域成为了一个强有力的挑战者,挑战美国的全球领先地位。中共国用诸多手段提高其竞争地位,包括与美国人勾结,大规模偷窃知识产权;强迫美国公司转让企业机密,作为进入中共国市场的前提条件;以及为保护中共国国家优先事项制定缜密长期的规划;合法和不合法的笼络国外人才,不遗余力地对中共国高科技公司给予国家支持。

China may have unintentionally alerted the Free World to its present danger by revealing the CCP regime's true face -- not exactly the one presented by "A rising China is a ... positive ¬development not only for China, but for America" -- as well as its global ambitions. China has revealed this true face by an abominable human rights record, underscored by its genocidal policy toward China's Uighur minority in Xinjiang Province. China's aggressive territorial expansion against Hong Kong and several of its Asian neighbors -- not to mention how it deliberately exported the Wuhan virus internationally while closing transportation to limit its spread within China -- has helped strip away its carefully orchestrated image as a responsible major power and has exposed a belligerent state controlled by the CCP.

中共国可能在无意间通过揭示中共国政权的真面目警醒了自由世界,看清它当下的危险--并不是如它所说,“崛起的中共国是一股正面发展的力量,不仅对于中共国,也是对于美国”--以及对于全球的野心。尤其通过最近它在新疆对待维吾尔少数民族的种族灭绝政策,这些恶劣的人权纪录彰显了中共国的真面目。中共国对于香港和其它几个亚洲近邻攻击性的区域扩张--甭提它如何处心积虑地把武汉病毒输出到世界各地,同时却关闭中共国境内的交通以阻止它在国内的扩散--已经有助于揭下它精心打造的一个负责任的世界强国的假象,并暴露了这就是一个被中共控制的好战之国。

Now, a Chinese physician and virologist, Dr. Yan Limeng, who fled China and is in hiding in the U.S., has said that China released the virus "intentionally" -- perhaps, one surmises, as a way of torpedoing both President Trump's prospects for re-election and his effort to alter trade deals that have favored China by $600 billion a year. Meanwhile, Twitter thoughtfully deleted Yan's clearly important account.

现在,身为中共国的医生和病毒学家的闫丽梦博士,逃离了中共国,目前藏在美国,她说出中共国是“有意”散布了病毒--也许,有人会推测,这是一种手段,破坏川普总统竞选连任的前景,以及他扭转中共国每年通过外贸交易获利6000亿美元的努力。与此同时,推特删除了闫博士至关重要的推特账户。

China's domestic implementation of advances in surveillance technology to control its own population also has contributed to the negative transformation of China's international image. The CCP has employed these advances to create a surveillance state to monitor the actions of Chinese citizens, and many countries have purchased Chinese facial recognition products. These state customers run the gamut of political systems from dictatorships to democracies.

中共国在国内应用先进监控技术,来控制本国民众,这也对中国国际形象向负面转换推波助澜。中共国使用这些先进技术,制造出一个监视国家,监视中国民众的行为,许多国家已经购买了中共国的人脸识别技术。这些国家级客户囊括了从独裁到民主都有的政治体系。

Artificial intelligence (AI) is another emerging technology where China is making inroads on the reported U.S. lead. China has set a goal of overtaking the U.S. in AI by 2030. AI is a scientific discipline that teaches machines to imitate human actions. Such applications have enormous potential to impact the efficiency and accuracy of modern weapon systems such as missiles. AI exercises have produced results as in assisting surgery and where machines have bested world-class Chess Masters and Go enthusiasts.

人工智能(AI)技术是另外一种新兴科技,中共国正在入侵美国的领先地位。中共国已经设定了一个2030年之前在AI技术上颠覆美国的目标。AI 是一们教机器模拟人的行为的科学学科。这类应用有巨大的潜力,影响诸如导弹等现代武器系统的效率和准确率。AI 训练已经在辅助外科手术上取得成果,机器也曾在围棋比赛中战胜了世界级大师和老手。

Five factors contribute to breakthroughs in AI and other emerging technologies: patents, investment, hardware, talented labor and academic research. Both China and the U.S. are improving the ability of AI to capture the nuance of languages.

五个因素有助于在人工智能和新兴技术领域取得突破:专利、投资、硬件、天才员工和学术研究。中共国和美国都在努力提升AI 辨识语言细微差别的能力。

China has now surpassed the U.S. in the number of published scientific studies, but there is a caveat: U.S. scientific publications remain, on the whole, qualitatively superior. These studies help keep the U.S. a step ahead in basic software such as computer data management, processing and in operating system software.

在发表的科学研究的数量上,中共国现在已经超过了美国。但是有一点要注意:整体上,美国科学出版物仍然保持着其卓越品质。这些研究有助于美国在基础软件如计算机数据处理,运算和系统软件操作方面继续领先一步。

Another critical discipline where the U.S. maintains a clear advantage over China is semiconductor chip technology, necessary for the manufacture of various electronic devices. The Trump administration's decoupling of China's Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd from the American market has helped slow Beijing's effort to catch up to the United States in semiconductor technology. The electronic materials, chemical gases, and lithographic technology -- all components necessary for the production of the most advanced semiconductors -- can presently only be produced in Free World states such as the U.S., Japan, and the Netherlands

另外美国明确领先于中共国的关键学科是半导体芯片技术,它对于许多电子产品的生产是不可或缺的。川普政府使中共国华为公司脱钩美国市场有助于减缓北京在半导体芯片技术上赶超美国的努力。电子材料,化学气体,以及光刻技术――所有这些为最先进的芯片生产必不可少的元素--目前只能在自由世界的国家生产,如美国,日本和荷兰。

Perhaps the most spirited and public manifestation of the U.S.-China "Tech War" is in space. This competition may recall the drama of the "space race" between an earlier generation of superpower rivals, the United States and the Soviet Union. Rather than the US-USSR rivalry to reach the moon, the focus in the current US-China contest is in space weaponry -- and reaching Mars. China is making impressive strides in space operations by recently deploying the BeiDou constellation of 30 satellites, its rival to the U.S. Global Positioning System (GPS). China also has plans to launch its own space station as an alternative to the International Space Station that highlights global cooperation, especially between the U.S. and Russia. Ominously, China appears to be doubling down on its effort to checkmate the West's capability to use space-based systems during conflict. If China can successfully blind U.S. systems by offensive cyber operations or outright destruction of U.S. systems by anti-satellite attacks, the war-fighting advantage currently possessed by the West can be annihilated. China executed a successful anti-satellite strike as early as 2007; it showed its capability by destroying one of its own aging weather satellites.

可能中美“科技战”最活跃和公开的表现是在太空。这种竞争会让人想起上一代超级强国,美国与苏联之间进行“太空征战”的场面。而现在中美之间竞赛的焦点,不再是美苏之间竞相登上月球的角逐,而是太空战--登上火星。中共国最近通过部署由30颗卫星组成的北斗系统,在太空争战方面取得了令人瞩目的进展,北斗系统是为了对抗美国的全球定位系统GPS。中共国也有发射自己太空站的计划,作为取代现有国际太空站的方案,现有太空站强调的是全球合作,尤其是在美国和俄罗斯之间。不可小觑的是,中共国正在加倍努力,来战胜西方在冲突中调度太空系统的能力。如果中共国成功地通过侵犯性的网络操作蒙蔽了美国的系统,或者通过反卫星攻击公然破坏美国系统,那么目前西方拥有的作战优势就会被瓦解。中共国早在2007年就成功地进行了一场反卫星袭击,通过摧毁一颗老化的气象卫星来展示了自己的能力。

Still another new technology with enormous potential for solving complex mathematical and scientific problems more quickly than today's computers can is quantum computing. While the U.S. claims to have created the first quantum computer, China appears to be leading in the military application of this new science. China has already demonstrated the ability to create unbreakable encrypted messaging, an accomplishment that could keep other countries in the dark about planned secret Chinese military operations, such as, say, an invasion of Taiwan.

还有另外一种新技术是量子计算。它有巨大的潜力解决复杂的算术和科学问题,比今天的计算机迅速地多。当美国宣称已经制造了第一台量子计算机,中共国显示出在军事上应用这项新科学的领先地位。中共国已经显示了对信息进行牢不可破的加密能力,这项成就会使得其它国家无从知晓中方军队秘密计划的军事行动,就比如,入侵台湾。

The U.S. still leads China in Research and Development (R&D) spending, but Beijing has made great strides in this area as well. In order to keep pace with China's all-out effort to dominate emerging technologies, a well-disciplined, coordinated approach by the U.S. government, sort of a "Manhattan Project" in all of the key hi-tech areas, might help. The costs to the US of falling behind could well prove catastrophic.

美国在研发经费上依然领先中共国,但中共国在这个领域也已经取得了极大的进展。为了跟上中共国不遗余力主导新兴技术的步伐,美国政府要出台一项完整规划,协调一致的方法,类似覆盖所有核心高科技领域的“曼哈顿计划”,也许有所助益。否則,美国落后的代价将是灾难性的。

编辑:【喜马拉雅战鹰团】Edited by:【Himalaya Hawk Squad】