The Endomembrane system Kelly Henderson - AP Biology - Period F

Nucleus

Structure:

  • Dense and spherical shape
  • Membrane bound
  • double membrane- "Nuclear envelope"
  • nuclear envelope- phospholipid bilayer
  • Two membranes are called inner and outer- the space between being the perinuclear space
  • The Nucleolus dense non membrane bound structure consisting of proteins and RNA and disappears during cell division
  • The Nuclear Pore pores among the nuclear envelope that are composed of proteins called nucleoproteins
  • Chromosomes DNA molecules within nucleus, when cell is resting shown as chromatin
(http://biology.about.com/od/cellanatomy/p/nucleus.htm)

function:

  • control center for herefitary information
  • In charge of protein synthesis, cell division, cell growth and cell differntation
  • stores hereditary information (DNA) and protein/ nucleic acid (RNA)
  • used as a site for transcription process
  • aids in the exchange of DNA and RNA from outside the cell
  • responsible for production of ribosomes
  • regulates gene integrity, synthesis of proteins through mRNA
  • the nucleolus responsible for transcription and assembly of ribosomal RNA
  • Nuclear envelope regulates the flow of molecules through nuclear pores
  • nuclear pores organize parts of chromosomes with genes for ribosomal synthesis

prolific?

Usually not prolific because in most cases, Eukaryotic cells have only one nucleus

organisms?

Animal, plant, and fungi cells will have a nucleus

(https://pixabay.com/en/bazzania-tricrenata-microscopic-903624/)

Diseases with nucleus

Spinal muscle atrophy

(https://www.flickr.com/photos/34861056@N05/12288500023)

ribosomes

(https://www.flickr.com/photos/128643624@N07/16193908377)

structure

  • consists of RNA and proteins
  • two subunits of ribosomes
  • subunits are produced in nucleus and cross over the nuclear membrane
  • ribosomal subunits attach to mRNA
  • ribosomes are either free and suspended within the cytosal or bound to rough ER

function

  • assemble proteins
  • aid in the translation of protein coding gene in mRNA into proteins
  • link amino acids to form polypeptide chains
  • polyribosomes allow for the multiple copies of protein to be synthesized
  • ultimate job is to help mRNA form proteins

prolific

  • YES!! very abundant within the cell due the necessity of protein assembly

organisms

  • almost every organism will have ribosomes due to the nature of needing proteins to live. It is vital that every cell has ribosomes

diseases associated

blackfan anemia

endoplasmic reticulum

structure

whether smooth or rough, all endoplasmic reticulums are a network of tubules and flattened sacs

(https://www.flickr.com/photos/34745138@N00/3839720754)

rough er

structure

  • usually the rough ER is a series of flattened out sacs
  • has ribosomes bounded to its membrane
  • space inside is called lumen
  • lumen is connected to the space within the nuclear envelope
  • extends from nuclear membrane out to the cell membrane

function

  • manufactures membranes and secretory proteins
  • in white blood cells, it also produces antibodies
  • in pancreatic cells, it produces insulin

prolifc

Not very abundant within the cell, but prolific within white blood cells due to its antibiotic production

organism

found within animal cells and plant cells

diseases associated

Alzeheimer's disease

(http://www.ew.com/gallery/gallery-meredith-grey-through-years)

SMooth ER

structure

  • more of network tubules than flattened sacs
  • no ribosomes bound to its membrance hence "smooth"

function

  • synthesize carbohydrates and lipids
  • site for transisitonal vesicles
  • in liver cells, helps to detoxify
  • in muscle cells, contributes to contraction of cell
  • in brain cells, shown to help with secretion of female and male hormones

prolific

not particularly, like its sister organelle, only within certain organs listed above, will it be prolific

organism

found within animal and plant cells

diseases associated

parkinson's disease

(https://www.flickr.com/photos/56126479@N08/5189137040)

golgi apparatus

(https://www.flickr.com/photos/15923063@N00/10346970543)

structure

  • Flat, pancake like sacs known as cristernaes
  • shape is due to protein interactions within the Golgi Apparatus
  • each stack has a membrane that seperates it from the cytoplasm
  • polar molecule
  • membrane at each end differ in thickness and in composition

function

  • major role within the cell is to ship materials across the cell

prolific

Not particularly prolific within cells due to massive size

diseases associated

Achondrogenesis

mitchondria

structure

  • oval shape
  • double membrane

function

prolific

organism

diseases associated

chloroplasts

structure

function

prolific

diseases associated

lysomes

structure

function

prolific

diseases associated

Tay sachs

vacoule

structure

function

prolific

diseases associated

danon disease

cilia

structure

function

prolific

diseases associated

flagellum

stucture

function

prolific

diseases associated

Works cited

http://biology.about.com/od/cellanatomy/p/ribosomes.htm

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23237905

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3290993/

http://organelleproblems.weebly.com/golgi-body.html

IMAGES:

https://pixabay.com/en/butterfly-common-buckeye-insect-1612180/

https://www.flickr.com/photos/78147607@N00/481523439

https://www.flickr.com/photos/99843102@N05/14017555622

https://www.flickr.com/photos/78147607@N00/4422704616

https://www.flickr.com/photos/38577038@N02/5978399686

https://www.flickr.com/photos/128643624@N07/16193908377

http://biology.about.com/od/cellanatomy/p/nucleus.htm

Credits:

Created with images by Brett_Hondow - "butterfly common buckeye insect" • euthman - "Papillary Carcinoma of the Thyroid" • M Pinarci - "DNA Strand" • euthman - "Iron-deficiency Anemia, Peripheral Blood Smear" • WikimediaImages - "bazzania tricrenata microscopic cells" • Bob Richmond - "HPV1382" • Thomas Fisher Rare Book Library, UofT - "Dissection of the head and neck, cranial, spinal and sympathetic nerves" • eLife - the journal - "Multi-coloured representation of the Plasmodium falciparum 80S ribosome bound to emetine (in cyan spheres)" • Sustainable sanitation - "Hymenolepis Diminuta egg (rat tapeworm)" • kaibara87 - "Onion cells 2" • euthman - "Graafian Follicle, Human Ovary" • racheldiane011 - "shaky." • CarbonNYC [in SF!] - "Golgi" • RaeAllen - "IMGP6276_powerhouse" • Picturepest - "Ciliat (diagnosis pending) - 160x - Caudal cilium - 2" • striatic - "microcosm"

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