Iran Cold War

Whatever the cost, the USA wants to prevent Iran from building nuclear weapons. Despite all denials to the contrary, the country is widely suspected of wanting to push forward quickly to join the club of world nuclear powers. So war is imminent then? Is the US planning another campaign, against Iran this time? In Washington, specialists and strategists from the secret service and the government are already conducting their map exercises, to see whether and how a new war could break out. Concrete scenarios are played through, threats exchanged - the sabre-rattling is increasing. In Iran too, reactions are tangible: a media campaign has started to prepare the country for a potential attack by the USA. At the same time, European diplomats are in negotiations with Iran regarding the end of its nuclear program. But even these negotiations are considered by the American specialist team - and are expected to fail. This film documents the strategic preparations on the US side and gathers opinions on the impending conflict from Iran

On August 19, 1953, the military, backed by street protests organized and financed by the CIA, overthrew Mossadeq. ... The Shah became one of America's most trusted Cold War allies, and U.S. economic and military aid poured into Iran during the 1950s, 1960s, and 1970s. Throughout the 19th century, Iran was caught between two advancing imperial powers, Russia and Britain. The leader of Iran was removed and he also flew away. The real Iranian government doesn't neatly fit into any category. It is both unique and highly complex. The term it uses for itself is accurate: Islamic Republic. But since there aren't any other Islamic Republics to compare it to, that term isn't much help for anyone who doesn't already know how the Iranian government works. So it is kind of democracy. The revolution appeared to many Americans to signify the “loss” of Iran to Soviet influence, a loss that was magnified by the USSR's invasion of Afghanistan in December 1979. It increased the tension between Soviet Union, United States and China. In conclusion to an extremely tense situation of the early Cold War, the Soviet Union announces that its troops in Iran will be withdrawn within six weeks. The Iranian crisis was one of the first tests of power between the United States and the Soviet Union in the postwar world.

During the later stages of the Cold War, conflict between Iran and Iraq started. Both countries were fighting for territories rich with oil and support from people from the opposing country, as Iraq thought Iran's large Arab population would support Iraq, while Iran thought that Iraq's Shiite Muslims and Kurds would support Iran. This tension rising between the two countries left room for the U.S. and The Soviet Union to come in. Both countries supported Iraq, trying to make Iraq an ally, mainly because of its many oil reserves. Although the U.S. and U.S.S.R were supportive of Iraq in the Iran- Iraq War, their main motives for support were oil and alliance because oil was a valuable resource, and both the U.S. and The Soviet Union were looking for support for their own side of the Cold War.

During the late 1970's, an Islamic Revolution had started in Iran. This all started when Iran's shah Mohammad Reza Pahlabi, or leader, wanted to westernize Iran. The shah thought that Iran should catch up with the rest of the industrialized world. Yet conservative Iranians disliked the idea, and put Prime Minister Muhammed Mossadeq into power, forcing the Shah to flee Iran. Fearing Iran would looks for support from the Soviet Union, the U.S. stepped in to help, trying to gain more support. The U.S. then put the Shah back into power, so that there would be leadership in Iran. Yet, an opposing religious leader of the Shah, Ayuatollah Ruholla Khomeini, convinced others to take the Shah out of power. Once again, the Shah flees Iran in 1979. Because of the U.S.'s support of the Shah, Iran disliked the U.S., having new anti-U.S. policies. The war soon started after Ayutollah Ruholla Khomeini told Muslims to overthrow Secular governments. The Islamic Revolution started, and threatened Iran's neighboring country, and long time rival, Iraq. The leader of Iraq was Saddam Hussein. Saddam was afraid that the Revolution would spread to Iraq, and threaten his power, so on September 22, 1980, Saddam sent troops into Iran. His plan was to collapse the government, and stop the Islamic Revolution with force. Hussein thought that this would be a quick victory, but he was wrong. Iran retaliated, and the 8 year war was brutal. Either country performed air strikes on civilians, bombings in the streets, and chemical warfare. Then, in hope to stop Iraq oil trade, Iran launched air strikes on Arab oil tankers in the Pacific. The oil was going to the U.S., so they disliked the attack. The U.S. soon sided with Hussein and Iraq, sending munitions and money. The Soviet Union was also supporting Iraq, since Iran opposed the Soviets occupation and rule in Afghanistan. Many other countries neighboring Iraq supported them, while Iran had little supporters.

Eventually, the Iran- Iraq war would turn out to be a stalemate. Neither country gained much land, or control over one another. Iran would go bankrupt eventually, since they had little support from other countries, and accepted a cease fire authorized by the United Nations. In the end, there were about 500,000 deaths, but an estimated 2,000,000 unconfirmed deaths, since there were so many civilian casualties. The U.S. and the Soviet Union were fighting for friendship with Iraq, for the main purpose of oil. Being rich in oil reserves, Iraq promised much of the natural resource that flourished mostly in the middle east. Most of the world ran on oil, from cars to jets, to factories. Ultimately, the fight for an alliance with Iraq between the U.S. and U.S.S.R would make tensions between the countries worse.

In the end, the U.S. probably gained the true friendship, due to the fall of the Soviet Union in the early 1990s, but the relationship wouldn't last long. The U.S. would eventually declare war on Iraq as Hussein looked to capture more surrounding countries. Iraq is still in the middle of a war with the U.S. The have suffered from the numerous bombings during the war, and sanitation, as well as production is very bad. Iran and Iraq are not fighting as much, and there might even be cooperation between the two countries. All in all, the war was no very successful for anyone, and made the quarreling between the U.S. and Soviet Union worse


Created with images by D-Stanley - "Main Corridor"

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