How Emigration affects a population: Emigration decreases the population because Adelie penguins are leaving the area.
How Immigration affects a population: Immigration increases the population because new Adelie penguins are entering the area.
Birth Rate: The higher the birth rate, the higher amount of new penguins yearly
Death Rate: The higher the death rate, the higher amount of Penguin's dying, resulting in a smaller population size.
Density-dependent: Precipitation and snowmelt can cause nest site flooding that drowns eggs and small chicks, which results in damage to the population of penguins. Climate change also can have effects on penguins’ terrestrial nesting sites and marine food resources.
Density-independent: The adelie penguin is hunted by the Skua, which is an example of a living factor as to why the population could decrease. It is also hunted by the leopard seal, which has been proven that it is a factor of their population decline.
Skua stealing a penguin egg