Topic 1 :A stock is a flavorable liquid by simmering bones or vegetables. Other ways to use stocks application is also used for sauce starters, mashed potatoes, braising liquid, rice and grains, and steamed vegetables. Stocks can be made for soups also.
Topic 2: White stocks: A pale liquid that is made by simmering pourly,beef, or fish bones
Topic 3 :Brown Stock: Its a Amber liquid by simmering pourly,beef, veal, and fish bones
Topic 4 :Fumet: Similar to fish stock, the flavor is made with fish bones
Topic 5: Court Bouillion:Used for poaching fish or vegetables
Topic 6 :Buillion/Broth: A liquid after cooking vegetables or fish
Topic 7: Glace: Also recognized as "Glaze" its a stock with jelly made from brown stock, chicken stock, or fish stock
Topic 8: Remouillage: A poor stock that is made from bones that were already used in another preparartion or to replace "water" used in the stock. Its a french word for "rewriting"
Topic 9 Jus: A Lightly stock used as a sauce for roasted meats or a sauce that is next to your dish
Topic 10 Vegetable Stock: Made by mirepoix,leeks,and turnips,tomatoes,garlic,and seasoning may be included to flavor or to darken the stock.
Topic 11: I believe that stocks are important part of cooking because by adding any type of other ingredient you create a stock. You may add vegetable or bones so it can have flavor. The flavor may be sweet or hot depending on what your cooking.