Rivalry in the Northwest
- In the early 1800's, four nations claimed the vast, rugged land known as the Oregon County.
- The United states based its claim on Robert Grey's discovery of the Columbia River in 1792 and the Lewis and Clark expedition.
- In 1819 Secretary of State John Quincy Adams got Spain to approve the Adams-Onis Treaty
- The Spanish agreed to set the limits of their territory at what is now California's northern border and to give up all claims to Oregon
Mountain Men in Oregon
- The tough, independent men spent most of their time in the Rocky Mountains, and were known as mountain men. Over time they could no longer make a living by trapping
- With their knowledge of the western lands, several mountain men, such as Jim Bridger and Kit Carson, found work as guides. The mountain men begin to carve out passages.
- The most popular passage carved out was the Oregon Trail
What did America gain from the Adams-Onis Treaty?
Answer- They gained access to the pacific ocean. The Spanish agreed to set the limits of their territory at what is now California's northern border, and to give up all claims to Oregon.
Oregon and Manifest Destiny
- In the 1830's Americans began traveling to the Oregon Country to settle
- The first settlers were Dr. Marcus Whitman and his wife, Narcissa. They were missionaries who went to Oregon in 1836 and built a mission.
- They built the mission among they Cayuse people near the present site of Walla Walla, Washington.
- They wanted to provide medical care and convert the Cayuse to Christianity.
Along the Oregon Trail
- Pioneers called emigrants left the United States to go to Oregon.
- By 1843 about a thousand emigrants made their journey; In the years ahead tens of thousands more would follow the same path.
- The pioneers followed the trail across the Great Plains, along the Platte River, and through the South Pass of the Rocky Mountains.
America seeks its Manifest Destiny
- In the 1840's , New York newspaper editor John O'Sullivan expressed in more specific words the idea of a National Mission
- O'Sullivan declared it was America's "Manifest Destiny to overspread and to possess the whole continent which Providence has given us"
- O'Sullivan meant that the United States was clearly destined--set apart for a special purpose--by God to extend its boundaries all the way to the Pacific ocean
Fifty-Four Forty or Fight
- Many Americans wanted the United States to take over all of Oregon.
- In 1844 presidential nominee, James K. Polk supported this desire.
- Polk's Whig opponent, Henry Clay, did not take a strong position on the Oregon issue.
How did Polk's views differ from Clay's in the 1844 election
Answer- Clay didn't care about the expansion as much a Polk. Polk won the election because Whig support was not behind Clay.
Statehood for Florida and Texas
How did Florida become a state?
Answer- Spain transfered Florida to the United States on July 17, 1821, Florida became an American territory.
- Florida had an appointed territorial governor, a territorial legislature, and a nonvoting delegate to the United States Congress
- Spain transferred Florida to the United States on July 17, 1821
- Many planters from Virginia, Georgia, and the Carolina's moved and looked for new land in Florida
The Territory Grows
- In 1837 the census for the territory of Florida reported that 48,000 people lived there
- Enslaved people made up about one-half of the population
Statehood of Florida
- Florida became the twenty-seventh state in the United States on March 3, 1845
What caused the population of Florida to grow?
Answer- The news spread about Florida's Fertile land, so many people came for the land.
- In 1821 Mexico controlled the land that is now Texas.
- At first, Mexico encouraged people to settle in Texas, before to long, Americans outnumbered Tejanos.
- In 1835 Mexican General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna took an army to punish the rebels.
- the Texas had only about 180 soldiers to take on Santa Anna's army of several thousand.
- The Texans did have brave leaders, however, including folk hero Davy Crockett, Comander William B. Travis, and a tough Texan named Jim Bowie.
- For 13 days, through several attacks, the defenders of the Alamo kept Santa Anna's army at bay with a fire rifle
Texas Declares its Independence
- On March 2, 1836--four days before the fall of the Alamo--they declared independence from Mexico
- Texan leaders set up a temporary government. This government named Sam Houston commander in chief of the Texan forces.
The Lone Star Republic
- In September 1836, the Texans elected Sam Houston as their president
- Houston sent a delegation, to Washington, D.C., to ask the United States to annex, or take control of, Texas
Texas Becomes a State
- Many Texans wanted to join the United States.
- Southerners favored Texas annexation, but northerners opposed admitting another slave state to the Union.
Why did it take a long time for the United States to annex Texas?
Answer- Martin Van Buren put off the question of annexing Texas because he did not want to inflame the slavery issue or risk war with Mexico.
How did the Santa Fe Trail benefit the New Mexico Territory?
Answer- It increased trade and many Americans came to settle in this area.
The New Mexico Territory
- In the early 1800's, the land called New Mexico was a vast region between Texas and California territories.
- It included all of the land that is now the states of New Mexico, Arizona, Nevada, and Utah and parts of Colorado and Wyoming.
- Mexico--including New Mexico--won its independence from Spain in 1821
How did William Becknell influence the American Settlement of New Mexico?
Answer- Americans started following him through the trail which brought them to New Mexico.
California's Spanish Culture
- Spanish explorers and missionaries from Mexico settled in California in the 1700's
- They had missions that aimed to convert Native Americans to Christianity and the Spanish way of life
- President James K. Polk was determined to get the California and New Mexico territories from Mexico.
- After Mexico refused, Polk planned to gain them through war.
- Polk told congress that Mexico had "invaded our territory and shed American blood upon the American soil"
A War Plan
- Polk planned to first drive Mexican forces out of Texas.
- Then he would seize New Mexico and California.
- Lastly he would have American Forces advance into Mexico and capture the capital, Mexico City.
- before war with Mexico, American settlers in northern California had begun an uprising
- On June 14, 1846, the Americans declared California Independent
- February 2, 1848, Mexico's leaders signed the treaty of Guadulupe Hidalgo.
- Mexico gave the United States more than 500,000 square miles of territory.
What did American gain from the Mexican War
Answer- they gained more than 500,000 square miles of territory.
How did the Discovery of Gold help California?
answer- It brought people to California because they were looking for gold
California Gold Rush
- The gold was discovered at Sutter's Mill in 1848, people from all over the world traveled to California in search of riches.
- Those who came to California were called the 49'ers
- americans made up about 80% of the 49'ers
- Californios are Mexicans living in California
The Life of a Forty-niner
- towns and cities almost appeared overnight, the population grew to 1,000 people
- many forty-niners had no experience in mining.
Gold Rush Society
- mining camps contained men of all backgrounds but few women
Economic and Political Progress
- rapid growth meant california needed a better government, in 1849 califonians applied for statehood and wrote a constitution.
How did California Gold rush Lead to expansion of cities?
answer- it brought people looking for money which made them move there
A religious refuge in Utah
- Nearby Utah religious members were fulfilling there vision of the godly life
The Mormons Move on
- neighbors disapproved of the mormons religion and forced them to leave
- they continued to suffer persecution and mistreatment because of their beliefs
- so they decided to move so they wouldn't be mistreated anymore
Why did the mormons have to keep moving from one place to another?
Answer-they were mistreated everywhere they went because of their beliefs