Founder- No single founder, God himself created this religion. Send Vedas to check on the human race
Country of Origin- Modern day Pakistan around the Indus Valley
Deities- Hindus believe in a supreme god, Vishnu, whose qualities and forms are represented by the multitude of deities which emanate from him such as Shiva, the destroyer, Ganapati, the remover of obstacles, Krishna, full of playfulness but can end the world, etc.
Number of Practitioners- According to a census done in 2001 there were 827, 578, 868.
Central Beliefs- 1. Truth is Eternal- “Hindus pursue knowledge and understanding of the Truth: the very essence of the universe and the only Reality. 2. ”The Vedas are the Ultimate Authority- “The Vedas are Hindu scriptures that contain revelations by ancient saints and sages. 3. Individual Souls Are Immortal- “A Hindu believes that the individual soul (atman) is neither created nor destroyed; it has been, it is, and it will be.” 4. The Goal of the Individual Soul is Maksha- “Maksha is liberation: the soul’s release from the cycle of death and rebirth.”
Founder- The main religion of China is Buddhism. While some might argue that Confucianism is the main religion, it is actually a philosophy instead of a national belief
Country of Origin- India
Dietes- Like Hindu deities they are meant to express particular characteristics of the Infinite. They are used as devotional images helping the seeker visualize, concentrate on, and thus in time attain, that aspect of the Infinite in him or herself
Number of Practitioners- According to a census done in 2001 in India there were 7,955,207 members. The main practitioners were the ones that were in monasteries. These main practitioners were accompanied by lay practitioners who provided them with clothes, food and water
4 Central Beliefs- 1. Reincarnation- The concept that people are reborn after dying, in fact, most individuals believe they go through many cycles of birth, living, death, and rebirth. After many cycles it is believed a person releases their attachment to desire and the self, they can attain Nirvana. This is a state of liberation and freedom from suffering. 2. Equality- They believe all living entities are equal. 3. The Four Noble Truth Suffering exists, there is a cause for suffering, there is an end to suffering, in order to end suffering you must follow the eightfold path. 4. The Five Precepts
- Do not kill, absence of violence
- Do not steal
- Do not lie, name calling, gossip, etc.
- Do not misuse sex
- Do not consume alcohol or other drugs, some have included as a drug other methods of divorcing ourselves from reality—e.g. movies, television, the internet, etc.
- The white father Vairocana transforms anger
- The blue father Aksobhya transforms ignorance and stupidity
- The yellow father Ratnasambhava transforms pride
- The red father Amitabha transforms passion
- The green father Amogasiddhi transforms jealousy
Development of Writing- The First Indian script developed in the Indus Valley around 2600 B.C. and it is still undeciphered! Later scripts like Brahmi and Kharosthi were developed to write both official and local languages. Through these writings we can see the history and culture of ancient India.
2 Dominant Languages- Hindi and English
Written Languages- Hindu language dominates a big portion of the literature there. Each Indian language has a corresponding alphabet so because there are about 22 different spoken languages the written languages differ.
Development of Written Languages- Ancient Chinese writing began as divination on oracle bones and slowly moved to a thing that the government used for documents and once thee people learned it the language completely changed how society worked. Expression of personal thoughts and feelings was made possible through poetry and prose, creating some of the greatest literature in the world.
2 Dominant Speakers- About 53% of the population speaks Mandarin Chinese but there are hundreds of varieties and dialects in China. This poses a problem for communication. You will often see Chinese struggling to speak with each other and this is where the common written language comes in. All the characters look the same, they are pronounced differently. There are about 56,000 different characters and while some of them are archaic or rare it is estimated that about 3,000 of them are needed to read a newspaper. College graduates might only know 5-6,000!
Written Languages- They use the same writing as the early writings go back, but there have been changes. Since China has now become communist, they have taken away many symbols from the characters to create a more controlling type of government. One of the changes is the symbol for love had a heart in the middle, now the government makes it so that the new character has no heart in the middle.
Historical Achievements of India
Surgery- Sushurta is the father of surgery who completed complicated surgeries, setting some standards for doctors.
In-Vitro Fertilization (IVF)- This came from Dr. Subhash Mukhopadhyay and Dr. Kumar introduced the concept of a “Test Tube Baby” while efforts from Dr. Mukherjee resulted in the first birth of these “Test Tube Baby’s”.
The Number 0- It is widely known how Aryabhatte taught the world how to count. The digit and concept also has a link to ancient philosophy of “nothingness”.
Historical Achievements of China
Acupuncture and Some Herbal Medicines- Derived from Daoist philosophy, according to archaeological findings the first writings on these medicines came from between the 11th and 3rd centuries.
The Sundial- Came from the Han Dynasty and was clearly mentioned in “The Sundial Book” from the 1st century.
The Crossbow- Was developed under the Warring States Period. Several remains are left with the terracotta soldiers.
Caste System in India
Originated in India, this caste system is among the world’s oldest forms of surviving social stratification. The system divides Hindus into rigid hierarchy groups based on their work and religion. Once you were born into a social class, you could not leave the social class until you died and were reincarnated.
History- According to an ancient text known as the Rigveda, the division of Indian society was based on Brahma’s divine creation of four groups. Priests and teachers were cast from his mouth, rulers and warriors were from his arms, merchants and traders from his thighs, and workers and peasants from his feet.
Layers of Caste:
- Brahmin- priests, teachers and judges who understood dharma. These people often live in temples away from society.
- Kshatriya- warrior caste who ran everyday decisions and the government. Decisions could be overruled by Brahmin.
- Vaishyas- skilled farmers and merchants
- Sudras- unskilled workers, usually worked for higher caste
- Prayers were pure. If prayers were listened to by Sudras, they would have lead poured in his ears.
- Untouchables- Foreigners, lawbreakers, people from isolated tribes and people with contagious disease.
Confucianism in China
Confucianism was not founded by Confucius, but more he was a transmitter to transmit information from the past to the present. His whole idea was that in order to have a spiritual life or a good life then you have to be a cultural person and give to your society. Also that in order to achieve this, you had to have a love of learning. This way of life was propagated by Confucius in the 6th-5th century BCE and has been followed by Chinese for more than 2 millenia.
Origin/History- Although transformed over time is still known as the substance of learning, the source of values, and the social code of the Chinese.
3 Central Beliefs of ConfucianismHumans are naturally good
- Humans are naturally good
- You should respect and follow your elders
- Yin and Yang represent opposite forces that keep balance and harmony in nature
Historical Role of Women and Family in India
Historical Role of Women- In historical India Women had equal rights to men and then there was a period where that completely changed and now it is one of the worst places for a women to live.
Importance of Family vs. Value of the Individual- The family is more important than the individual is nothing without the family. Family’s tend to be very close knit and married couple live with the parents for a while before going out on their own.
Historical Role of Women and Family in China
Historical Role of Women- In ancient times women were not allowed to do anything really. The men were the center of the family and life in China was ultimately ruled by men. Women were not allowed to advance their sons in the hierarchy, men could only advance through other men (fathers, grandfathers, great-grandfathers). Women were more of a problem and annoyance than a human being. Women were used to do things like farming, serving, caring for children and the home, pretty much everything except being a soldier and providing for the family.
Family vs. Individual- The institution of family is the pinnacle of society. This is a fact that has long been realized by the Chinese who hold the family bonds as sacred and honor them accordingly. Families have a hierarchical order with the father at the head providing, protecting, and having the final say in all matters. This has however relaxed a little over time. The most important relationship inside of a family is that of a father and his son. Most times in past China they would have 4 generations of family living in the same house, however, China has grown more modern and more often just has two generations per house. The family still looks up to their ancestors that have done great things. Families may look up to their ancestors for thousands of year, honoring their legacy. Dining is also very important to the families inside of China as it helps signify peace and harmony as often in China, eating is peaceful.
Social Mobility and Monsoons of India
Social Mobility- There was virtually no mobility because of how rigid the system was and because of how you were put in a class. Castes still rarely intermarry but discrimination between castes is against the law. Now though it is starting to change as mobility changes it begins to break down the caste system. In the early days people like the untouchables weren’t allowed to move at all but now they are able to move a little because of changes that are happening.
Monsoons- Seasonal prevailing winds that create large thermal contrast between land and sea. This creates extreme rainfall and storms.
How Does This Affect Life in India- Farmers crops and the people’s water supply relies on these storms. Without them they would lose nutrients. On the other hand though they cause large floods and destroy homes and buildings. In early days if he floods were really bad it could kill people but now with more modern building it is so much of a threat.
Social Mobility of China
Social Mobility- There still isn’t hardly any wiggle room in china’s caste system. Many Chinese scholars who have studied the lack of social mobility agree that education plays a large role in redressing the problem. In China they are basically making it so that students that come out of college, they are not hiring as much. This results in many students coming out of college can’t get jobs because companies are hiring cheap labor instead of the labor that would have them pay more.
What Country Colonized India- India was colonized by Britain which had control of most of India although there were some French and Portuguese there too.
When Did The Colonizing Country First Arrive and Officially Take Over- Britain first arrived in 1601 when they established the East India Trade Company there. They officially took over in 1757 through the company till 1947 after people began to protest and they finally decided to let them loose.
How Long and in What Ways Was India Controlled- India was indirectly controlled by Britain through their trading company. That company ran for about 200 years! Britain wanted all of the resources that India had and that is why they colonized there.
What Country Colonized and Controlled China- Great Britain slowly took china over piece by piece.
How Long and in What Ways was China Controlled- They were controlled from 1842-1949 but Hong Kong was not regained till 1997. They were controlled indirectly through trade.
What was The Main Reason China was Colonized- The trading they had was the main reason Britain got control of the country.
When and How did India Gain Its Independence- India gained its independence on August 15, 1947. People began to protest during WWII so their request was put on hold but after the war their request was granted much thanks to Gandhi and his peaceful protests.
Who Was a Pivotal Figure in India’s Independence Movement- Gopal Krishna Gokhale 1866-1915. He was an early leader of the Indian National Congress. He was considered a moderate for working with British institutions and opposing more direct approaches to independence. Gokhale was an important mentor to Gandhi.
When Did China Gain Its Independence- China celebrates their independence day on the 1st of October. The actual date that the request to become independent didn’t get passed until December 2nd, 1949. On this day the Peoples Republic of China was passed, emerging with a new and improved communist country. Today however two government powers rule the Chinese country, the Peoples Republic of China and the Republic of China.
Population- 1,334,003,686 and it is constantly changing.
Current GDP Ranking- India is currently ranked #7 according to their GDP.
Current Form of Government- India is a Sovereign, Socialist, Secular, Democratic Republic with a parliamentary system of government. They have a president with no term limits. He is elected by the federal and state parliaments. Technically the president has complete power but the prime minister is the one who actually uses the power. The prime minister is currently Narendra Modi.
Leader- Pranab Mukherjee is the president of India
He is the 13th and current president of India. In office since July of 2012 his political career has lasted 6 decades. He started in the upper house of parliament and moved up from there. He has received several accolades and honors. He has written many books and is still president of China.
Current Population- The current population of China is 1.385 billion people, and this number is growing rapidly.
Current Rank of the Country’s Economy According to Their GDP- China is second, right behind the United States in the GDP economy rank. However, for population rank China is in the lead with USA in second.
Current Form of Government and Leader- China’s current form of government is a communist party called the Republic of China. This party controls everything that happens with China and are above all of the high social classes. Being communist basically means that everyone is paid the same and that everyone is treated fair. Fewer people are poverty. Their leader is Xi Jinping who became president of China in 2014. He has used a lot more police force than before and one of his apparent goals is to destroy the crime that is in China.
Current Place of Caste System in India
Current Place and Effect of the Caste System- Some positive effects that the caste system has had is that people have fixed occupations. People no longer have to worry about the choice of a job and how to keep it. One of the negative effects is that there isn’t really a choice of occupation it is chose for you from birth and there really isn’t a way to change it therefore mobility of labor is impossible.
Current Place of Confucianism in China
Current Affect/Role of Confucianism in China- China is still using Confucianism to help rule their government and keep the citizens in line. However, they are only using ideas from Confucianism that have to do with loyalty and unconditional listening to the government. They are manipulating Confucianism ideas to make their citizens listen to the government without argument. During a recent trip by American scholar she found that Confucianism comes up in conversation quite often and the people speak with such reverence about the topic she was amazed. They still follow its teachings and read its writings and all the things that go along with the umbrella of Confucianism.
China’s One-Child Policy and its Affects- This is not the first time that the Chinese government has stepped in to control family planning. Back when the Peoples Republic of China was first founded, the leader declared that families produce as many people as possible. However this drained supplies and ended up killing 15 to 30 million people in China. They then put the one child policy in place and as a result caused a big change in China. Since this has been lifted, Chinese families may have more children, but during the one child policy, if a family was caught with more than one child there would be fines, sterilization or even abortion. China’s one child policy once called the Great Wall of family planning was among the boldest strategies any nation has deployed in modern times to manage population size. After 35 years’ experts say the policy was having undesirable effects. It messed with traditional structures for supporting older adults and led to a large imbalance in the number of men and women. Many people welcomed the announcement that the policy was being changed to allow two children per couple but experts say that because having one child has become the social norm in China the change will have a limited effect for a while.
Role of Indian Women in Society Today-Today Indian women are trying to break out of the traditional shell. They are entering new fields and beginning participation in social, economic, and political activities. Things are slowly changing for the better.
Role Women Have in Today’s Society in China- Although women are no longer repressed by immobilizing foot binding tradition they now experience different limitations and social pressures. Communism pushed men and women to work together but China’s traditional Confucianism opposes this still. Because of this there is a lot of confusion and hardship and women often find themselves admitting that financial incentives are more important than personal compatibility when searching for a partner. This is because of how difficult the job world is for women. There is still a long way to go for the women of China today.
Current Problem in India- While there isn’t a lack of water because of the monsoons India has, they don’t have a way to store and clean the water and because of India’s high population a good portion of the country suffers from lack of clean water. This food and nutrition deficit has created a 20% death rate due to malnutrition and water contamination.
Current Problem in China- It happened once and this time it is going to be worse. There is an excess of men in China because of the one child policy and the fact that men are favored over women. The result is that approximately 30 million more men than women will reach adulthood and enter China’s mating market by 2020.