Sudan By: Haleigh Monks

On July 2011, what was known as the largest and the most geographically diverse countries in Africa spilt into two separate countries, North Sudan and South Sudan. Sudan is also one of the poorest, and most violent countries in Africa.

LOCATION- a particular place or position

Sudan is located near South Sudan, Chad, Eritera, and Ethiopia. It is also located near the Red Sea. The capital of Sudan is Khartoum, which is located at 15.5007 degrees North and 32.5599 degrees East. It is located on the continent, Africa.

Map of Khartoum and othe cities in Sudan
The Capital city of Khartoum
The Al Fateh Tower in Khartoum
Skyline view of Khartoum
Map of Africa

Some major landforms in Sudan are the cataracts if the Nile, which are six Rapids that mark the Nile Rivers course downstream through Khartoum, Mount Kinyeti which is 10,456 feet, and the Sahara Desert is in the northern part of Sudan.

In the desert zone of Sudan, the temperature reaches about 110 degrees Fahrenheit. Dust storms also occur in the desert zone. In central Sudan, it is still hot, but the humidity is low. In Khartoum the average temperature is 80 degrees and rainfall happens mainly between June and September where they get about 10 inches of rain.

Left- The desert zone in Sudan. Middle- Rain in Khartoum. Right- A desert storm in the desert zone.

This video is of a dust storm in Khartoum called Haboob that happened 8 years ago

Sudan is surrounded by the countries Egypt, Eritera, Chad, South Sudan, Ethiopia, the Central African Republic, and Libya.

Map of Sudan and its surrounding countries.

The Red Sea borders Sudan. The Indian Ocean is near Sudan. The Nile River runs through Sudan, and the Blue and White Nile Rivers spilt in Sudan.

The White Nile River in Sudan

This video is a short educational video about the Nile River.

PLACE- a particular portion of space

Petroleum is the main resource that comes from Sudan. Also chromium ore, copper, iron ore, silver, gold, mica, tungsten, and zinc come from Sudan.

Petroleum, Sudan's main resource
Left- chromium ore. Right- iron ore
Sliver and gold bars.

This video is about the process of gold mining in Sudan.

Some cultural groups in Sudan are Sudanese Arab, the Sunni Muslims, and a small group of Christian minority. Sunni Muslims and Christianity are also the main religions.

Left- Sunni Muslims praying. Middle- Christians having church ceremony. Right- Sudanese people in traditional clothes.
Left and Middle- Traditional clothes worn by Muslims. Right- Christians expressing their religion.

Since Sudan is mainly Muslim, they celebrate Ramadan and Eid al- Fitr, which is celebrated after Ramandan. These holidays are celebrated in August.

Left- People celebrating Ramadan. Top and Bottom- People after Ramadan celebrating Eid al- Fitr.

The type of government in Sudan is presidential republic. They gained their independence on January 1, 1956 from Egypt and the U.K. That is also a national holiday. Their legal system is a mixture of the English common law and Islamic Law. They have the same three branches we have, the legislative, executive, and judicial.

This video is about Ramadan and how people celebrate it.

HUMAN-ENVIRONMENT INTERACTION- the relationship between people and their environment

Some of the crops grown in Sudan include cereals like sorghum, corn, wheat, rice, and millet. They also grow oil, seeds, beans, chickpeas, lentils, and cotton.

Left- Corn in the field before it's been picked. Middle- Brown, and white rice. Right- Wheat before it's been picked.

Most of the jobs in Sudan have to do with farming or mining. With their main export as cotton they need a lot of farmers.

Sudan people picking cotton
People mining in Sudan for gold
A man farming for sesame another crop grown in Sudan.

Sudan has critically endangered species like the Burton's Gerbil, the Four-spotted Gerbil, the Lowe's Gerbil, and the Principal Gerbil.

Left- Burton's gerbil. Middle- Four-spotted gerbil. Right- Lowe's gerbil.

Some environmental issues in Sudan are threatened species because of hunting, not enough portable water supply, soil erosion, desertification, and periodic droughts. They have tried to cut down on hunting.

This video explains what desertification is and how it affects the world.

REGION- areas that can be grouped together by a set of things special o that area

Sudan has a education system that requires you to go to school from grades 1-8, which is ages 6-13. They call this primary education. They teach in Arabic and girls' right to go to school is under the influence of religious leaders and tribal councils. Then they move on to secondary education for three years the ages are from 14-17. They have universities in Sudan, but they are not the best. The best and oldest is the University of Khartoum.

A graphic of Sudan's education system
Left- Kids in primary education. Middle- Kids in secondary education. Right- The University of Khartoum.

As of July 2016 Sudan's population is 36, 729, 501. And their population density is 24 people per kilometers. Sudan is 728, 200 square miles. Sudan's per capita GDP is 1, 807.66 USD as of 2016. The life expectancy for males is about 62 years. For females it's about 66 years. The literacy rate for males is 83.3% and for females it's 68.6%. For the whole country it's 75.9%. Sudan's climate varies from place to place. In the south it's tropical, in the north it's arid desert, and their rainy season is from April through October.

MOVEMENT- things that move like people, goods, or ideas

Sudan's main exports are oil and petroleum. They also export cotton, livestock, sugar. Their main export partners are the UAE, China, Saudi Arabia, Australia, and India. They import manufactured goods, medicines, and textiles. Their main import partners are UAE, China, India, Egypt, Turkey, and Saudi Arabia.

Left- Oil main export. Middle- Cotton another export. Right- Livestock that gets exported
Medicine imported to Sudan to help them medically.

Sudan's flag has green, red, white, and black. The red horizontal line represents the country's martyrs during the fight for independence. The white horizontal line represents purity. The black horizontal line represents Sudan, in Arabic Sudan means black. The green triangle represents Islam agriculture. They gained their independence from Egypt and Britian on January 1, 1956 and the flag was blue, yellow, and green horizontal lines. In 1970 they adopted a new flag and has been the flag ever since.

Left- Sudan's flag from 1956 through 1970. Right- Sudan's flag today.

Sudan gained their independence on January 1, 1956 from the Anglo-Egyptian Condominium which was a joint British and Egyptian government. But during this and even after the gained independence from them, the entire country was having problems. From 1955-1972 Sudan had their first civil war. Then from 1983-2005 they had a second civil war, and it ended with a peace agreement. Until Sudan broke into two different countries, Sudan and South Sudan.

This is a news board cast about people voting on wheater or not to draw a new border through Sudan making it two different countries.

Sudan does not have the best technology, but they do come up with some creative stuff. Like the dual purpose weeder, the water turbine, the ceramic water filter, hydropower in some places, and the battery charging donkey chart. They also have computers in some schools, but they aren't the best or the newest.

Left- The dual purpose weeder. Top- Hydropower technology. Bottom- Computers in a Sudan school.

Sudan has the same mode for transportation as we so. Like cars, trucks, taxis, trains, and buses. They also ride animals or have animals pull them.

Left- Sudan car. Middle- Donkey drawn carriage. Right- Train in Sudan.


On January 13, 2017 the Obama administration had plans to reverse their position on Sudan, and lift trade sanctions. The American government has tried to stop the Sudanese government from killing their people for years, but it hasn't worked. On January 14 Obama announced a new strategy. Sudan would be able to trade extensively. This hasn't happened since the 1990's. In return Sudan will stop supporting rebel groups in South Sudan.

This video is giving you some more information, and telling you why it's bad to lift the sanctions.

On September 9th, 2016 the Sudanese government was blamed for killing a group of civilians in 30 suspected chemical weapons attacks in Darfur. Up to 250 people, including children, may have been killed by these chemicals.

Top left- Some of the chemical weapons Sudan used. Top right- Injuries due to the chemical weapons. Bottom left- A riot to save Darfur. Bottom right- A before and after picture of Darfur.


Sudan is a beautiful place to visit. Even though everywhere isn't the safest, it is still beautiful. Khartoum, their capital is really gorgeous at night. Plus they have the Al Fateh Tower, and Khartoum University.

Top left- Khartoum University. Top right- Khartoum University Facility of Law. Bottom left- Khartoum at night. Bottom right- The Al Fateh Tower.

This video shows the future of Khartoum


It's not normal for teenagers to go to school after primary education. If they did they only went for three years. They wear light, loose-fitting clothes because of the hot climate. Girls do have to wear a scarf around their heads because of their religion. They listen to traditional African music.

Left- Traditional clothes for girls. Middle- Traditional outfit for guys. Right- Teenagers in school.

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