CAUSE 2- Europeans wanting resources
A cause for exploration was Europe wanting spices and sugar, so they tried to sail to India and China. Columbus thought he could sail west to get to India, but he found the Americas. Him finding the Americas (the Caribbean more specifically) inspired colonization and more tragically the slave trade.
EFFECT #2-slave trade
Sadly, one major effect of exploration was the slave trade. Although this is an awful thing, things today would be entirely different for us. Colonies and countries were built upon slavery. Clothes, crops, and materials were built by slaves, so everything wouldn't exist without the slaves. Slaves, also increased the triangle trade, the imports of raw materials, and finished product. Even if the slave trade was awful, it helped the countries to communicate and trade together.