What is it?
What are we actually flipping in a flipped classroom?
What advantages does it offer?
What are the potential obstacles?
Bishop & Verleger (2013) described Flipped Classroom as a combination of behaviourist principles, in particular ZPD of Vygotsky(1978) and constructivist theory and collaborative learning of Piaget (1967).
Constructivist in terms of being active and problem-based learning activities & Behaviourist in terms of instructional lectures derived from direct instruction.
Lage et al. (2000) described flipped classroom as "...events that have traditionally taken place inside the classroom now take place outside the classroom and vice versa." (p. 32)
But, this is not the case!!!
Flipped Classroom represents an expansion of the curriculum, rather than a mere re-arrangement of activities.
- It is about providing environment in which students have more responsibility on their learning process.
- It is about creating an environment in which students could have the chance to learn by experiencing and doing not just being a passive receivers
Coventry University approach towards flip model is much more wider:
"practice that creates learning through active participation and skills development through the curation of educational experiences in a technology rich learning environment."
It then continues: "...any implementation of the flipped approach must be looking to enhance student participation, the learning process and staff-student interaction."
This will led us to the next question - WHY?
Why beyond Flip?
Coventry University as a forward-looking, modern University, consistently strives to ensure high quality teaching is a cornerstone of the University experience. Beyond Flipped Learning is one of the innovative teaching & learning methods which ensure dynamic, responsive, and effective teaching and learning experience for students.
Advantages of going Flip:
- Promotes student-student interaction and collaboration skills,
- Promotes student-teacher interaction,
- Encourages higher student engagement,
- Makes learning central, rather than teaching,
- Allows students to reflect upon their learning,
- Fosters independent learning,
- Allows teachers to know their students better,
- Provides increased individualised attention,
- Helps struggling students,
- Allows teachers to reflect upon their teaching practice,
- Changes classroom management,
- Ensures that all students are involved
- Allows for real differentiation
It helps you to overcome one of the biggest challenges in teaching & learning planning: “to build an appropriate assessment system that objectively measures students understanding in a way that is meaningful for the students and the teacher.” (Bergmann & Sams, 2012, p. 85)
Planning a flipped classroom:
- Understanding your context is of vital importance and underpins your flipped classroom design (ILOs)
- a good understanding of PBL - start by posing questions or problems rather than simply presenting facts of knowledge
Three stages of Flip model:
Flip model vs. Traditional style
- k J Keengwe, G. Onchwari, J. Oigara (2014) Promoting Active Learning through the Flipped Classroom Model, USA, IGI Global
- J. Bergmann, A. Sams, Flip Your Classroom: Reach Every Student in Every Class Every Day
- J. Piaget, D. Elkind, and A. Tenzer. Six psychological studies. Random House New York, 1967.
- L.S. Vygotsky. Mind and society: The development of higher mental processes. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1978
- How to Flip a Classroom and Land your Feet Carl Reidsema, The University of Queensland