Ancient Africa grace bennett

Source for picture: N.p., n.d. Web.

Source for picture: N.p., n.d. Web.

GHANA

Physical Description: Ghana's coastline is low and sandy. It also has many plains, streams and rivers around it. In the central and east it's a tropical rain forest broken by forested hills and many streams and rivers. To the north it is covered by low bushes, park-like savanna and scattered grassy plains. Climate is usually tropical, hot and very humid.

Religions Practiced: Religion influenced almost everything in the daily lives of the Ghanaian. People believed in animism and ancestor veneration. When bad things would happen people would give up sacrifices to their ancestors. In the 19th century Islam was introduced to Ancient Ghana. Then by the 15th century Christianity began to be practice.

Source for Picture: Bdn. "Where We Work - Bridge Development Network." Where We Work - Bridge Development Network. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 Mar. 2017.

Slave Trade: Traded between Western Africa and the America's. They demanded a large work force for crops. The empire was at its highest in the mid-18th century where over 80,000 Africans were in slave trade. A slave was usually a prize for war or by just being kidnapped.

Trading Systems: Ghana's trading partners were the Muslims to the north and the middle east. Some of there imports and exports were salt and gold which was the most valued and traded of all. They also traded other items such as ivory, kola nuts, cloth, slaves and other goods.

Information on the empire: The first king of Ghana was Dinga Cisse. Ghana was in power from 300 to 1100 CE. Around 1050 CE the Muslims tried to convert the people of Ghana to Islam but they refused and then they became attacked many times by Northern Africa. Then Ghana gradually became less and less powerful and were finally taken over by the Mali empire.

Source for picture: N.p., n.d. Web.

Culture: The Akan Kingdom was a great influence on the culture of the Ghana empire. Each tribe has much artwork such as weaving, word carving and more. Music was also a huge thing in Ghana. The main languages spoken in Ghana were English and Akan is widely spoken. Ga-Adangme Ewe were also spoken and Hausa and Nigerian was the trading language. The peoples diet was mainly starchy staple eaten with soup or soup and rice was also very popular. For dress people would use rags as clothing.

Current Ghana: Currently the leader of Ghana is Nana Akufo-Addo who is Republican. As for a social aspect of Ghana there is many sports teams that play in Ghana. Currently in the economics of Ghana democratic rule is beginning to emerge in Africa. As of right now there is more than 1.2 billion opportunities for jobs in Africa.

Map of Ghana

Work Cited:

1. "Africa/." World Atlas - Maps, Geography, Travel. N.p., 13 July 2016. Web. 09 Mar. 2017. 2."Ancient Africa." Ducksters Educational Site. N.p., n.d. Web. 09 Mar. 2017. 3. "BBC Bitesize - The Kingdom of Benin." BBC News. BBC, n.d. Web. 10 Mar. 2017.

Source for Picture: N.p., n.d. Web.

MALI

Physical Description: The landforms of Mali are mostly Savannah grassland and it also has higher plateaus in the north. It has rugged hills with high elevations. 65% of Mali is desert land or semi-desert. The climate of Mali is hot and dry in the north and subtropical in the south while it's also hot and humid.

Religions Practiced: Religion was very important in Mali. The kings would normally convert their people to Islam but they did not force religion on people so there was a variety of Islam versions that people practiced.

Source for Picture: N.p., n.d. Web.

Slave Trade: Caravans would carry goods from one town or settlement to another.

Trading Systems: They would exchange southern forest products like kola nuts, gold, ivory and wood. The currency of Mali was West Africa CFA franc. The major export was cotton.

Source for Picture: N.p., n.d. Web

Information on Empire: Mali was formed by Sundiata Keita. The government was led by the emperor Mansa. The governor was called a Ferba, the most known emperor was Mansa Musa. The empire was established around 1235 CE and began to loose power around the 1400s and then was done in 1600 CE.

Culture: The main influence of Mali was France. Religion was super important in Mali. The language that was spoken in Mali was French. People are said to have invested more than half of their income in food. They ate mainly rice, vegetables, and livestock. People loved fashion in Mali. A Boubou was one of the outfits wealthy people wore. Another thing that everyone would wear was a basin.

Current Mali: The leader of Mali is Ibrahim Boubacar Keita. Right now in Mali there is social stability. Mali is a big producer of Mali right now. As of right now there is economic growth in the empire.

Map of Mali

Work Cited:

1. Africa/." World Atlas - Maps, Geography, Travel. N.p., 13 July 2016. Web. 09 Mar. 2017. 2. "Ancient Africa." Ducksters Educational Site. N.p., n.d. Web. 09 Mar. 2017. 3. Eading. And Technology Aided the Development of These Empires. Trade, Technology, and Culture: The Mali Empire in West (n.d.): n. pag. Web. 4. "Mali Country Profile." BBC News. BBC, 01 Sept. 2016. Web. 10 Mar. 2017.

Source for Picture: N.p., n.d. Web.

SOGHAI

Physical Description: The landforms of Songhai were located near the Niger river near the GAO. rainforest, Sahara desert and the grasses of the savanna. The climate of Songhai was cold and dry from November to February. Overall it is hot, dry and the crops were hard to farm.

Religions Practiced: Almost everyone practiced Islam in Songhai. They prayed five times a day and could not eat pork or drink alcohol. People also had to make ti to Haji at least once in their lives.

Source for picture: "The Songhai Empire." Daily Scribbling. N.p., 11 July 2014. Web. 10 Mar. 2017.

Slave Trade: Slave trade was very important in Songhai. They traded across the Sahara Desert to Morocco and the middle east. The slaves were sold to Europeans to work in Europe and the America's.

Trading Systems: Trade played an important role in the development of the empire. Traded ivory, rubber, slaves and spices for salt, gold, arms, and copper. Traded with the Kuba Kingdom Chokwe Kingdom, and the Lunda Kingdom. The currency in Songhai was Cowry Shells and salt.

Source for Picture: Kwekudee. SONGHAI PEOPLE: THE FEARLESS WARRIORS, INTELLECTUALS AND THE FOUNDERS OF PRECOLONIAL AFRICAN EMPIRE OF SONGHAI. N.p., 01 Jan. 1970. Web. 10 Mar. 2017.

Information of Empire: The leaders of the Songhai empire were first Muhammad then his son Askia Musa after him. The Songhai was in power from 1492 to 1591. The empire fell in 1591 when they were attacked by the Moroccan army.

Culture: Influences of Songhai were the Niger river and Islam. The language of Songhai was Zarma or French. The diet of the people was millet made by mixing flour in a pot of boiling water until the mixture thickens then served with meat. The dress of the Songhai people was a cotton three piece outfit which is called a boubou, it was a loose shirt and drawstring trousers. Almost all people practiced religion there.

Current Songhai: Songhai is no longer an empire.

Map of Songhai

Work Cited:

1. "Ancient Africa." Ducksters Educational Site. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 Mar. 2017. 2. Mads. "Songhai, African Empire, 15-16th Century." Mads. N.p., 08 Nov. 2011. Web. 10 Mar. 2017. 3. "Religion." Songhai Empire. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 Mar. 2017. 4. "Songhay." Countries and Their Cultures. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 Mar. 2017.

Source for Picture: N.p., n.d. Web

BENIN

Physical Description: The landforms of Benin are from narrow and sandy to marshy land with lagoons that rise into the La Terre deBarre Plateau. It also has mountains and foot hills. The climate of Benin is hot and humid, the rainy seasons in April to November the dry season is from November to March.

Religions Practiced: More than half of the people in Benin follow traditional tribal beliefs. Some of the people were Christians and some others were Muslim. People believed in voodoo and they also believed in death and afterlife.

Source for Picture: Law, Robin, and Dov Ronen. "Benin." Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., 10 May 2016. Web. 10 Mar. 2017.

Slave Trade: Traded slaves with Dutch and Portuguese traders. Their imports came from the Europeans and Ghana.

Trading Systems: Trade played important roles in Benin's economy. Their imports were cloth, iron, and copper. Their exports were carvings, spices, slaves, and ivory. Then currency in Benin was West Africa CFA franc.

Source for Picture: "Traditional Dance Troupe Form Benin Culture." Lower Niger Congress - USA. N.p., 08 Dec. 2016. Web. 11 Mar. 2017.

Information of Empire: The first ruler of Benin was Oba. The Benin Empire ruled from the 900's to the 1800's. The end of the empire was in 1897 when a British army invaded and made them part of a British empire.

Culture: The main influences on Benin were Nigeria and the British Empire. The language of the Benin empire was French. The main food people ate in Benin was a sort of mush. Cooking was always done outside and people would also eat a lot of vegetables and fruit but no meat.

Current Benin: The president in Benin is currently Patrice Talon who is republican. Boys after the age of puberty must do labor. As of right now they need more people working on farms. Right now The economy is fairly wealthy.

Map of Benin

Work Cited:

1. "Africa/." World Atlas - Maps, Geography, Travel. N.p., 13 July 2016. Web. 10 Mar. 2017. 2. "BBC Bitesize - The Kingdom of Benin." BBC News. BBC, n.d. Web. 10 Mar. 2017. 3. "Benin." Countries and Their Cultures. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 Mar. 2017. 4. Bortolot, Author: Alexander Ives. "Trade Relations among European and African Nations." The Met's Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 Mar. 2017. 5. "The Benin Empire and Slave Trade - A History Lesson in 5 Minutes (Compiled by Bolaji Aluko)." NigerianMuse. N.p., 29 Aug. 2009. Web. 10 Mar. 2017.

Credits:

Created with images by Alberto-g-rovi - "Mezquita de Abu el Abbas-Alejandria" • paularps - "Boat production in Elmina harbour (Ghana 2005)" • mexolive - "slave castle elmina ghana" • noramorgan - "ghana-location" • Phototravelography - "The Great Mosque of Djenné in Mali is the largest mud brick building in the world." • Phototravelography - "In Djenné, Mali, crossing Niger River in a canoo. The horse has to swim." • Brittany Danisch - "IMG_0257.jpg" • SEDACMaps - "Mali: Settlement Points" • dodorosa - "ruin djemila caracalla" • christian.costeaux - "Bénin" • SEDACMaps - "Benin: Settlement Points"

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