La Historia de España nicole Riley 8 estrellas

Welcome to my webpage! Here you will learn about the history of Spain.

The Complete History of Spain

First to Invadir Spain

The First people to invade Spain were the Celtas.

Why Did the Celtas Invade Spain?

They Invaded Spain for its fertile land, and location. Spain is located next to the Mediterranean Sea, and the Atlantic Ocean.

Next to invade

The second group to invade spain were the Romans. The Roman Empire was greatly expanding. This caused the Romans to become even more powerful. All of their tactics in lucha were a lot more advanced.

Fall of the roman empire

The Roman Empire collapsed in 409 AD. When the Romans fell out of power the left two things: the Aqueduct, and the Coliseum.

AQUEDUCT:

This is the Aqueduct which is in Segovia

COLISEUM:

This is the Coliseum in Merida

Reino de los Visigodos

The kingdom of Visigoths were the next group to come into Spain. They came out of Germany. The Visigoths were in power over Spain between the 5th and 8th century.

Last Invasion

The last group to invade Spain were the Moors. The Moors came from Northern Africa and invadido the peninsula in 711 A.D.. They Easily derrotado the Visigoth Kingdoms and conquistada nearly all of the peninsula

The Moors where Arabs, Berbers, and Syrians that all came from Northern Africa because of Religious, and Cultural persecucion.

The Moors dividido Spain into many small kingdoms with many kings. This made it harder for other invaders to come into Spain and take over because know they have to go through many kings instead of just overthrowing one King.

The last Moorish king, although, was defeated in Granada. He was defeated in January of 1492

La reconquista

La Reconquista was a lucha, or batalla, between two religions. In this battle of religions there was no clear winner.

There was almost continual fighting between the Christians and the Muslims. The Christians revisado north of the peninsula; whereas the Muslims revisado the south.

Toledo

Toledo was the Ciudad de la Tolerancia. Toledo had all types of faith such as: Jews, Christians, and Muslims. Synagogues, Churches, Cathedrals, and Arabic style architecture are in influencia on the city, and to the people who come and visit the city today.

This is Toledo
Fernando of Aragon Isabel of Castilla

Catholic Kings

Fernando of Aragon did not do much while we was in power. He was very perezoso and sometimes considered a "slob".

Isabel of Castilla was very different from Fernando. She was a belicista. She was very stubborn. Isabel would not let her troops go to battle unless she went to battle with them.

In 1469 Fernando of Aragon and Isabel of Castilla got casado to join the two kingdoms. They United the Christian kingdoms to go against the Moors.

They solidificado their powers through religion and military success. With both kingdoms being unido they terminado the reconquista by defeating the moors in Granada in 1492.

Inquisicion ESPAÑOLA

After the last Moorish king was defeated all muslims remaining in Spain were forzado to leave or convertir to Christianity. How did the kingdom get the power to kick people out? Well, Pope Sixtus IV was the person that allowed the kicking out of non Catholics in Spain making it legal to do so.

In 1502 the christians were not just happy with kicking out all muslims. So they decided, because officers their success against the Muslims, that all Jews needed to either leave or convert to Christianity.

But there was a problem with the people that were either forced to leave or convert to christianity. How did they know that they've converted? To find out they would interrogate and torture the Jews and Muslims that have "converted" until they would confess or they would put them on trial. When they were put on trial they were later executed.

Guerra religiosa

Carlos V used the funds that were coming from colonies to subsidize the many religious wars he was fighting across Europe. He wanted to detener the spread of the Protestant Reformation across Europe. When he passed on his legacy to his successor, his son Felipe.

Carlos V
Felipe II

Felipe II continued wars against the protestants. In the year of 1554, Felipe II married Mary Tudor of England in attempt to create an international Catholic alliance. A male heir from this marriage would have become King of England, however, there was no son and the Protestant Elizabeth I came to power in England.

Annexed Portugal and Dutch declared independence from Spain comienzo a war involving England.

In 1588 Spain's "invincible" Armada was defeated by England.

LA LEYENDA NEGRA

El Greco

  • Painter from Greece that wanted to pintar Felipe II's castle.
  • His name was: Domenikos Theotokopoulos
  • He traveled to Spain in search of work in the decoration of el Escorial
  • Felipe II hated his style and refused to hire him

Siglo de oro

Siglo de oro: The Black Legend

During this time period there was a lot of literature, drama, and art.

Literature, drama, and art created during this time

  • La vida es sueno by Pedro Calderon de la Barca
  • Lope de Vega, Tirso de molina

Character of Don Juan introduced the the image of "Latin Lover"

Don Quixote was the second most translated book other than the Bible.

End of the HABSBURGs

Felipe IV's son, Carlos II, know as "el hechizado" (the bewitched) to the throne but died in 1700, leaving no heir to ascend to the throne of Spain.

War

After Carlos II died leavening to heir to the throne, the of Guerra de sucesion espanola pitted royal families and their nations against each other to see who would rule Spain.

  • The war ended in 1713, with Spain losing Gibraltar to the English
  • Felipe V, the Bourbon grandson of Louis XIV, became King of Spain.
  • The Bourbon family remains the familia real of Spain today.

The bourbons

  • The Bourbons are competent rulers, but are more concerned with life at court.
  • They tried to convert Spain into a modern state, based on Neoclassical ideas of the Ilustracion.

War

La Guerra de la Independencia Espanola began with the rebellion of 2 May 1808. During this time most of the colonies in America gained their independence from Spain.

Joseph Bonaparte was removed from the throne of Spain in 1812.

Constitucion de 1812 established a parliamentary monarchy.

Fernando VII (1814-1833)

Son of Carlos IV returns from exile in France to rule after being defeated by Napoleon's troops.

The totalitarian rule was constantly at odds with liberals who wanted to expand on the Constitution of 1812.

In 1833 Fernando VII died, leaving his daughter, Isabel II, to take over his spot.

More Bourbon troubles

Fernando VII died without leaving a male heir, leaving his only daughter, Isabel II. The country divided on the issue of having a women ruler. Supporters of Fernando's brother, Carlos, face off against more liberal supporters of Isabel II in several Guerras Carlistas

Isabel II ends up taking over the throne, and reigns from 1833-1868

Those crazy bourbons

Isabel II rules through political turmoil, with the Carlists continually opposing her authority. In 1868 the "Revolucion Gloriosa " removed her from power.

Put in her place was King Amadeo, a short-lived experiment. king Amadeo was an Italian man. He was on the throne from 1870-1873.

In 1873 the first Republica Espanola is proclaimed. This Republic did not last very long. It ended in 1874, only lasting about a year.

Here we go agian

The Bourbons return to the throne with the reign of Alfonso XII from 1875-1885, followed by his son Alfonso XIII. Alfonso XIII ruled from 1902-1931

Alfonso XIII was born in 1885, shortly after his fathers death. His mother oversaw the government as his regent in the interim.

Spain quickly began to downslide, marked by the loss of its last remaining colonies in 1898 and embarrassing military defeats in Morocco.

Alfonso Xii

Alfonso XII was unable to put a stop to the political tension and low morale of the country, so Alfonso XII allows a military general to establish a dictatorship from 1923-1931

This dictatorship was also unable to solve the problems of the country also. In 1931, elections are held to determine if Spain should continue a monarchy or give democracy another try.

Let's try this again

He second Republic of Spain is established in 1931, ushering in an era of hope and optimism

They set up a new progressive constitution, which gave women the right to vote, allowed women to divorce, it also separates the Church from the State, and creates public schools.

Can't we all just get along

This new government created an even more political and social divide in Spain. The military, the church and he upper classes think there are too many changes going on.

But on the other hand, Socialists and Communists factions think there are not enough changes and want more change, and faster.

Civil war

The result of the split, there is a Civil War. General Francisco Franco stages a military revolt in 1936, beginning the Civil War.

During the Civil War Franco's fascist troops are aided by forces from Germany and Italy; whereas, Republican forces get very little help and aid.

The War ends in 1939, with Franco's Nationalist forces winning.

Francisco Franco

After the Civil War Francisco Franco became the dictator of Spain from 1939 until his death in 1975. he Idolized "glory years" of Spain under Carlos V and Felipe II. Under his rule there was the exile of artists, intellectuals, and scientists.

one more time

Basque terrorist group ETA assassinates Franco's chosen successor. In response Franco chooses the grandson of Alfonso XIII to take over. But upon Franco's death in 11975, Juan Carlos I de Bourbon becomes King of Spain.

juan carlos

Juan, Instead of continuing Franco's policies or establishing an absolute monarchy, declares democracy in Spain. He names Adolfo Suarez as first Prime Minister. Suarez begins the period known as the Transition.

democracia

In 1978, Suarez is elected in the first elections held in Spain since 1936.

In the 80's Felipe Gonzalez leads Spain out of its isolation, joining NATO and the EU. JOse MAria Aznar increases Spain's influence in the world, with a growing economy and a strong alliance with the USA.

TRAGEDY

On March 11, 2004, Islamic fundamentalist terrorists placed bombs on several commuter trains in Madrid, killing nearly 200 people and injuring over 2000 people.

a new direction

Two days after the attack, elections proclaimed Jose Luis Rodriguez Zapatero the new Prime Minister of Spain. His first action as Prime Minister was to withdraw Spanish troops from the US war with Iraq. He, then, also won the re-election in 2008.

La familia real

As a parliamentary monarchy, Spain retains its royal family, although all government decisions are handled by Parliament and the President of the government.

Credits:

Created with images by marsir86 - "spain catalonia girona" • Efraimstochter - "spain flag flutter" • ClaudioLombardi - "roman holiday birthplace of rome roman soldiers" • Arian Zwegers - "Segovia, Aqueduct" • Dale Harvey - "Coliseum" • weareaway - "spain road old town" • Nick Kenrick.. - "Malaga Spain" • Arian Zwegers - "Toledo, the Alcazar and the Cathedral" • JaimePF55 - "tower gold seville" • Fr Antunes - "Spain, Madrid" • Stifts- och landsbiblioteket i Skara - "Carlo V" • Biblioteca Rector Machado y Nuñez - "Felipe II" • Hans - "cathedral of saint mary palma mallorca" • weareaway - "spain road old town" • WuKomm - "dom seville church" • kirkandmimi - "barcelona spain facade" • jackmac34 - "spain segovia castle" • poperopop - "courtyards cordoba patios de córdoba" • sherioz - "reflection water canal" • Nick Kenrick.. - "Marbella" • rick ligthelm - "La Orotava, Tenerife, Spain" • sermarr erGuiri - "Rojigualda"

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