First to Invadir Spain
The First people to invade Spain were the Celtas.
Why Did the Celtas Invade Spain?
They Invaded Spain for its fertile land, and location. Spain is located next to the Mediterranean Sea, and the Atlantic Ocean.
Next to invade
The second group to invade spain were the Romans. The Roman Empire was greatly expanding. This caused the Romans to become even more powerful. All of their tactics in lucha were a lot more advanced.
Fall of the roman empire
The Roman Empire collapsed in 409 AD. When the Romans fell out of power the left two things: the Aqueduct, and the Coliseum.
Reino de los Visigodos
The kingdom of Visigoths were the next group to come into Spain. They came out of Germany. The Visigoths were in power over Spain between the 5th and 8th century.
The last group to invade Spain were the Moors. The Moors came from Northern Africa and invadido the peninsula in 711 A.D.. They Easily derrotado the Visigoth Kingdoms and conquistada nearly all of the peninsula
The Moors where Arabs, Berbers, and Syrians that all came from Northern Africa because of Religious, and Cultural persecucion.
The Moors dividido Spain into many small kingdoms with many kings. This made it harder for other invaders to come into Spain and take over because know they have to go through many kings instead of just overthrowing one King.
The last Moorish king, although, was defeated in Granada. He was defeated in January of 1492
La Reconquista was a lucha, or batalla, between two religions. In this battle of religions there was no clear winner.
There was almost continual fighting between the Christians and the Muslims. The Christians revisado north of the peninsula; whereas the Muslims revisado the south.
Toledo was the Ciudad de la Tolerancia. Toledo had all types of faith such as: Jews, Christians, and Muslims. Synagogues, Churches, Cathedrals, and Arabic style architecture are in influencia on the city, and to the people who come and visit the city today.
After the last Moorish king was defeated all muslims remaining in Spain were forzado to leave or convertir to Christianity. How did the kingdom get the power to kick people out? Well, Pope Sixtus IV was the person that allowed the kicking out of non Catholics in Spain making it legal to do so.
In 1502 the christians were not just happy with kicking out all muslims. So they decided, because officers their success against the Muslims, that all Jews needed to either leave or convert to Christianity.
But there was a problem with the people that were either forced to leave or convert to christianity. How did they know that they've converted? To find out they would interrogate and torture the Jews and Muslims that have "converted" until they would confess or they would put them on trial. When they were put on trial they were later executed.
Carlos V used the funds that were coming from colonies to subsidize the many religious wars he was fighting across Europe. He wanted to detener the spread of the Protestant Reformation across Europe. When he passed on his legacy to his successor, his son Felipe.
Felipe II continued wars against the protestants. In the year of 1554, Felipe II married Mary Tudor of England in attempt to create an international Catholic alliance. A male heir from this marriage would have become King of England, however, there was no son and the Protestant Elizabeth I came to power in England.
Annexed Portugal and Dutch declared independence from Spain comienzo a war involving England.
In 1588 Spain's "invincible" Armada was defeated by England.
LA LEYENDA NEGRA
- Painter from Greece that wanted to pintar Felipe II's castle.
- His name was: Domenikos Theotokopoulos
- He traveled to Spain in search of work in the decoration of el Escorial
- Felipe II hated his style and refused to hire him
- The Bourbons are competent rulers, but are more concerned with life at court.
- They tried to convert Spain into a modern state, based on Neoclassical ideas of the Ilustracion.
La Guerra de la Independencia Espanola began with the rebellion of 2 May 1808. During this time most of the colonies in America gained their independence from Spain.
Joseph Bonaparte was removed from the throne of Spain in 1812.
Constitucion de 1812 established a parliamentary monarchy.
Fernando VII (1814-1833)
Son of Carlos IV returns from exile in France to rule after being defeated by Napoleon's troops.
The totalitarian rule was constantly at odds with liberals who wanted to expand on the Constitution of 1812.
In 1833 Fernando VII died, leaving his daughter, Isabel II, to take over his spot.
More Bourbon troubles
Fernando VII died without leaving a male heir, leaving his only daughter, Isabel II. The country divided on the issue of having a women ruler. Supporters of Fernando's brother, Carlos, face off against more liberal supporters of Isabel II in several Guerras Carlistas
Isabel II ends up taking over the throne, and reigns from 1833-1868
Alfonso XII was unable to put a stop to the political tension and low morale of the country, so Alfonso XII allows a military general to establish a dictatorship from 1923-1931
This dictatorship was also unable to solve the problems of the country also. In 1931, elections are held to determine if Spain should continue a monarchy or give democracy another try.
Let's try this again
He second Republic of Spain is established in 1931, ushering in an era of hope and optimism
They set up a new progressive constitution, which gave women the right to vote, allowed women to divorce, it also separates the Church from the State, and creates public schools.
Can't we all just get along
This new government created an even more political and social divide in Spain. The military, the church and he upper classes think there are too many changes going on.
But on the other hand, Socialists and Communists factions think there are not enough changes and want more change, and faster.
In 1978, Suarez is elected in the first elections held in Spain since 1936.
In the 80's Felipe Gonzalez leads Spain out of its isolation, joining NATO and the EU. JOse MAria Aznar increases Spain's influence in the world, with a growing economy and a strong alliance with the USA.
On March 11, 2004, Islamic fundamentalist terrorists placed bombs on several commuter trains in Madrid, killing nearly 200 people and injuring over 2000 people.
a new direction
Two days after the attack, elections proclaimed Jose Luis Rodriguez Zapatero the new Prime Minister of Spain. His first action as Prime Minister was to withdraw Spanish troops from the US war with Iraq. He, then, also won the re-election in 2008.
La familia real
As a parliamentary monarchy, Spain retains its royal family, although all government decisions are handled by Parliament and the President of the government.