1. McGowan, Todd. "The Exceptional Darkness of the Dark Knight." Jump Cut: A Review of Contemporary Media 51 (2009): 15. 2009. Web 6 Mar. 2017. [PDF]
Rachel's death and Dent’s own disfigurement introduce traumatic loss into his existence. Dent originally becomes a killer as a means of revenge and vengeance for his late fiancé but ultimately ends up wanting to kill in order to inflict his own experience of loss on others. Dent wants to kill what is most precious to Gordon so that Gordon endures the same pain and suffering that he went through
Ethics - moral principles that govern a person's behavior.
Morality - a specific system of values usually held by a society or an individual.
Consequentialism - an ethics that only sees value in obedience, disregarding whatever means reaching that obedience entails.
Dent wakes up from his accident and the Joker explains the situation to him
Understanding these terms is crucial when questioning the reasoning behind Harvey Dent's dramatic switch to Two-face as well as his motives to kill. Consequentialism also has to do with the Joker's role in Harvey Dent's descent into darkness.
“But the film shows that there is no hero without a mask — and, more specifically, without a mask of evil”
“The properly human good, the good elevated above the natural good, the infinite spiritual good, is ultimately the mask of evil” - Slavoj Žižek
“He’s the hero Gotham deserves, but not the one it needs right now. And so we’ll hunt him, because he can take it. Because he’s not a hero. He’s a silent guardian, a watchful protector ... a dark knight” - Gordan
I think that this PDF file shows ethos by hitting a variety of different topics and being able to go into such depth into each one. It also heavily uses the film as a source for direct quotes and scene cuts, proving their in-depth research of The Dark Knight and where their analyses are actually coming from. Lastly, being from a contemporary film journal made this source perfectly credible for the topic at hand.
Two sided coin used to determine life
2. Morana, Hilda CP, Michael H. Stone, and Elias Abdalla-Filho. "Personality disorders, psychopathy and serial killers." Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria 28 (2006): s74-s79.
This sources illustrates the basic characteristics of several different personality disorders. Emotionally unstable personality disorder is marked by impulsive and unpredictable manifestations, presenting two subtypes: impulsive and borderline. The impulsive subtype is characterized by emotional instability and uncontrolled impulses. The borderline subtype, in addition to emotional instability, presents self-image perturbations (causing difficulty in defining personal preferences) and a consequent feeling of emptiness.
Emotionally unstable PD - A specific personality disorder characterized by impulsive and unpredictable manifestations.
ICD-10 - The tenth revision of the International Classification of Diseases
Personality disorder (PD) - A severe disturbance of the character and behavioral tendencies of the individual.
Paranoid PD - A specific personality disorder characterized by self-referential thinking.
Knowledge of these key terms are essential to understand the details of this article and to be able to use this article to support claims that Two-face may have suffered from personality disorders.
“psychiatrists have had difficulty in making a diagnosis of PD”
"It is as though the emotional processes were a second language for [psychopaths]"
"There are still biological aspects that are not of a genetic nature, but that also interfere with the development of the personality"
This source is a peer-reviewed journal article, published in many different countries and subsequently, languages. I think that being printed in many different languages actually builds up more ethos because of its widespread reach. Lastly, the article incorporates an 'expert opinion' section which built ethos because you were able to analyze an entire section of information that is from several other credible sources
3. Muhtadie, Luma and Sheri L. Johnson. “Threat Sensitivity in Bipolar Disorder.” Journal of Abnormal Psychology, vol. 124, no. 1, n.p., Feb. 2015, pp. 93-101. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1037/a0038065
According to this article, bipolar disorder most of the time is hereditary, but environmental stress can be a major predictor of the life course of the disorder. The study found that the combination of anxiety and mental illnesses had additive and synergistic effects. Those with comorbid anxiety is associated with the course of mental illness and well-being.
Stress reactivity - the capacity or tendency to respond to a stressor
Psychophysiology - the way in which the mind and body interact
Comorbidity - the presence of more than one disorder in the same person
Making sure to understand Psychology jargon such as the terms above allows for less misinterpretation of results within studies. Accurately understanding these results allows for accurate analysis of Two-face as bi-polar and anxious.
“60% of individuals diagnosed with bipolar disorder have at least one comorbid anxiety disorder”
“more than 30% have multiple anxiety disorders”
“bipolar disorder and anxiety have each been linked to an increased prevalence of cardiovascular disease”
This is a peer- reviewed journal source where a study was conducted to study threat sensitivity within bipolar disorder. The authors used many graphs and tables to develop logos. They also simultaneously developed credibility through the professionalism shown in their work as well as accuracy within different trends that they discussed.
Film depiction of Two-Face
4. Nolan, Christopher, Charles Roven, Emma Thomas, David S. Goyer, Jonathan Nolan, Christian Bale, Heath Ledger, Aaron Eckhart, Michael Caine, Maggie Gyllenhaal, Gary Oldman, Morgan Freeman, James N. Howard, Hans Zimmer, and Bob Kane. The Dark Knight. Burbank, CA: Warner Home Video, 2008.
During the second Batman movie of the trilogy, The Dark Knight, the Joker carries out a trick of sorts, forcing Batman and Harvey Dent’s close friend, the Gotham City’s police commissioner James Gordon, to choose between saving the life of either Harvey Dent or Rachel Dawes. Dent is engaged to Dawes while Bruce Wayne (Batman’s human identity) is secretly in love with her, therefore, Batman sets out to rescue Rachel over Harvey. Dawes dies when the Joker’s bomb goes off, while severely burning Dent’s face in the process
Harvey Dent (Two-face) - Former Gotham City district attorney turned madman who wreaks havoc on those who have allowed evil to roam the city.
Rachel Dawes - Fiancee of Harvey Dent and love interest of Batman.
The Joker - Super-villain and main antagonist of the film, who kills Rachel Dawes and influences Dent’s dramatic shift.
James Gordan - Police commissioner of Gotham City and friend of Harvey Dent, who feels a deep commitment of ridding the city of crime.
Knowing at least the minimal descriptions of the characters in the movie allow for deeper understanding of the characters’ actions and motives for those actions. These character descriptions are also beneficial for those that may be familiar with the comics’ interpretation of the characters but not with the film’s adaptations in particular
“You either die a hero, or live long enough to see yourself become the villain” - Harvey Dent
“The Joker’s just a mad dog. I want whoever let him off his leash” - Two-Face
“It’s not about what I want, it’s about what’s fair” - Two-Face
“You thought we could be decent men, in an indecent time! But you were wrong. The world is cruel, and the only morality in a cruel world is chance. Unbiased, unprejudiced… fair” - Two-Face to Batman
“Because you were the best of us! He wanted to prove that even someone as good as you could fall” - Batman to Two-Face
Obviously, as this particular work is being analyzed, there is a necessity to use it within the research. The work's ethos was also built as famous film critics positively analyzed the movie itself, the character development, as well as the actors' portrayal of their characters. I will be using specific motion picture scenes, parts of the script, as well as interviews and other media that goes into the enterprise somewhat like primary sources.
5. Purdin, Rickey (4 Mar. 2008) "(Dark Knight Exclusive): Aaron Eckhart Q&A". wizarduniverse.com. Wizard Entertainment. Archived from the original on 18 June 2008. Retrieved 1 June 2008.
Aaron Eckhart’s personal analyses of Harvey Dent/ Two-face points to the potentially inaccurate character development of Dent as pure evil.
Obviously understanding the basic plot of The Dark Knight as well as character development is very necessary when analyzing Harvey Dent and his descent to becoming Two-face.
“[My character] stays true to himself” - Aaron Eckhart about Harvey Dent
“[He] is not purely a bad guy because he isn’t killing good people” - Aaron Eckhart about Harvey Dent
"I think Harvey's a good guy, he just got hurt along the way" - Aaron Eckhart about Harvey Dent
As the source is a direct interview with Aaron Eckhart, the actor who spent months researching and practicing to portray Harvey Dent/ Two-face in the film, it has credible attributes. I will be using this as a secondary source by picking out Eckhart's analyses of Harvey Dent/ Two-face and using them to support my argument.
DC Comics depiction of Two-face
I have decided to revise my submission of Raid 3: Annotated Bibliography because it was not fully completed and did not show the most of my abilities. I did end up completing Raid 4: The Final Draft of the Villain Essay, which I felt demonstrated my writing skills in a better light and I hoped to redo the annotated bibliography keeping that literary potential in mind. The first time around, there was very little to no information. I take full responsibility for this and hope that this assignment is more satisfactory. I think that a lot of times all of life's throws at you can become overwhelming and you often pick and choose what is more important. In my case, it often has to do with my physical and mental health over my school work, but that is not to say that I am not grateful to be able to attend college to expand my education and all of the professors, administrators, and donors who make it possible. In that moment I chose my personal health over an assignment and although I do not regret it, I do feel remorse for that decision. I felt disrespectful to you as a professor and disappointed at myself as a student. I felt that the changes needed to be made because I wanted to prove to myself that I was better than a mere 4/50 on a project. And that even if it takes time out of my day from doing more enjoyable activities or relaxing, that at the end of the day I would feel more accomplished and proud of my work. I really appreciate the opportunity to revise and perfect any assignment not only because of my numerical grade but because it allows for a single ‘bad’ assignment not to define me as a ‘bad’ student.