There are many centripetal forces for supranational cooperation but there are also centrifugal forces working against supranational cooperation. The creation of a Common Market has been an important centripetal force working for the E.U. The single market not only benefits workers but removes tariffs which lowers the price for goods. The adoption of the Euro by many countries has also benefited trade as now you do not have to exchange currencies every time you enter a new country. By doing all of this the E.U. has created a powerful Trade Bloc which has encouraged more international business in the E.U. Unfortunately when working towards shared economic goals, not every country agrees with certain decisions. Western Europe is wealthier than Eastern Europe and does not appreciate how much money is being spent on the East nor the threat to their jobs as Eastern Europeans flock to the west in search of jobs is lowering wages. The common market has brought trade and unity to Europe. While the trade has brought Europe together the difference in wealth between Western Europe and Eastern Europe has created division. Before the E.U. many countries were politically divided. They had the power to work together but did not have to and it didn't happen very often. The E.U. works above the countries governments but does not replace it. The E.U. brings countries together to fight common issues, in other words, issues they all share. It also creates a supranational identity for everyone which invites citizens of countries belonging to the E.U. to think of themselves as citizens of Europe. The E.U. has several important branches/bodies. The largest of these is the European Parliament with over 700 members from all of the countries in the E.U. Unfortunately joining the E.U. means giving up some power which many countries struggle with. Alongside the surrender of certain power the diversity of Europe puts strain on cooperation making cooperation extremely difficult in many cases. The E.U.’s motto “United in Diversity” shows how much it values and recognizes the diversity of the people it is unifying. The E.U. has promoted cultural diversity for a long time. Unfortunately along with cultural diversity brings many difficulties. The EU has worked to create a common cultural identity and has even closed a anthem and has its own flag and “Europe Day” on May 9. Along with that the EU supports many cultural programs and encourages everyone to learn another language. There are many centripetal forces at work in Europe but there are also centrifugal forces.
What makes a good citizen?
A good citizen has rights, responsibility, and abides by the law. When a citizen has right that means they are granted certain luxuries by the law. A example of a right is the right to freedom of speech, a citizen of America has freedom of speech because it is a law. A citizen also has responsibilities which can also be luxuries. A example of a responsibility is voting. It is a right that everyone can vote, but it is a responsibility which means that you aren't required to vote but can if you would want to. Finally a good citizen would obey the law. Whether it is a state law, or a national law, the law should be followed. A example of this might be not walking your vdog in a certain part of the park because that he Park rules say not to. These are just some examples of what a good citizen might do and how they might act.
Which type of government is most effective?
There are many different types of government and almost all are very effective in one or more areas but all have their downsides. In this I think that democracy is the most effective government. A dictatorship is efficient but not much else, and while the dictator might start off on your side it doesn't usually end up that he is still on your side after a while. In a dictatorship leaders often abuse their power, mistreat citizens, and use the power in their best interests not the country's. A example of the is the infamous Fujimori a former president of Peru who became a dictator and did many good things for the country. Unfortunately with no one to check his power he eventually abused and misused his power. A democracy on the other hand is not always very efficient, but it treats its citizens very fairly and allows them rights. Along with this leaders are elected by the people the power of the government is divided into separate branches. A example of this government is Ancient Greece -specifically the Athens- who had a direct democracy which means everyone voted and votes were counted individually. It was a successful and early example of one of the first democratic governments. A famous and successful example of democracy was the representative democracy of the Roman Empire in which the citizens elected leaders to represent them. A example of when this government is not efficient, could be when someone might be trying to pass a law but has a lot of opposition from the congress, this situation could be very long and tedious. I think that democracy has its downsides but is the most effective government overall for the reasons stated above.
The Sahel would be easier to live in than the Sahara. The Sahel would be easier to live in than the Sahara because the Sahel has more rainfall. Water is an incredibly valuable resource. in the Sahara and the Sahel because they are so dry. Water is required for growing crops and raising livestock. The people living in the region also require water to drink. Water is a much needed resource in dry climates like the Sahara and Sahel.Since the Sahel receives more rainfall, it would be easier to live in the Sahel than the Sahara. The Sahel is less arid than the Sahara and has tropical grasslands as its vegetation which makes it an easier environment to live in than the Sahara. The Sahara is an arid climate while the Sahel is a semi-arid climate. This makes the area easier to live in than the Sahara because more animals will be able to live in the Sahel because of its slightly less extreme climate. The Sahel also has Baobab and acacia trees which provide resources and help prevent desertification. The Sahel would be a easier place to live than the Sahara because it has more water, vegetation, and a less extreme climate.