Protein Synthesis Mely JUarez

Protein synthesis is the process of how amino acids are turned into proteins by RNA including Messenger RNA, Ribosomal RNA, and Transfer RNA.

There are four organelles involved in Protein Synthesis. They are.. The Nucleus, The Ribosomes, The Endoplasmatic Reticulum, and The Golgi Apparatus.

Protein Synthesis is important for living things because DNA is in the nucleus, we need DNA in our lives to keep us healthy and alive. Ribosomes are in the cytoplasm, your cells need to rely on RNA to transfer the information.

Picture of Protein synthesis

The steps for Transcription are First the DNA Polymerase (Enzyme) unzips the DNA, Second the DNA template is used to make mRNA, Third mRNA leaves the nucleus and goes into the cytoplasm.

mRNA, tRNA, and rRNA are involved in Transcription.

Other than RNA and DNA, RNA polymerase is also involved in Transcription

The base pair rules from DNA-DNA are Adenine pairs with Thymine, and Cytosine pairs with Guanine

The base pair rules from DNA-RNA are Adenine pairs with Uracil, and Cytosine pairs with Guanine. Thymine is replaced with Uracil

Transcription happens when rna polymerase makes a copy of dna and the product will be RNA, after that the RNA will transfer out of nucleus then it will be attached with ribosomes.

Transcription occurs in the nucleus in the cell. DNA can't leave the nucleus because it has to be protected because it carries our genes. mRNA has to leave the nucleus through the cytoplasm.

Difference between Dna and RNA
Process of Transcription.

The steps for Translation are First the mRNA attaches to the ribosomes, Second the ribsomes reads the mRNA groups in 3 bases=codon, Third a tRNA molecule comes along with the right anticodon to match the codon, and Fourth the mRNA molecule carries the amino aacids and links them together with peptide bonds to make a protein.

The organelles involved in Translation are Ribosomes, tRNA, and mRNA. Bascially all proteins.

No, there is no other molecules involved in Translation other than DNA and RNA.

The role of tRNA is to link amino acids together. (Delivers the ingredients) tRNA brings the correct amino acid by a specific order it is determined by a codon, a sequence of three nucleotides on the mRNA, and a complementary nucleotide triplet on the tRNA, called an anticodon. The anticodon is the particular amino acid that the tRNA carries.

Translation happens when amino acids and t-RNA mix together the mRNA near the AUG start of the codon.

Translation occurs in the Cytoplasm.

Process of Translation.

Mutations are a change in the nucleotide sequence in DNA which then causes a change in protein.

Mutations can be caused if a mistake is made as DNA copies itself during cell division.

An inverse mutation is when a chromosome is reversed end to end.

A Translocation mutation is when some of the chromosomes are relocated, and when genes from one chromosome can be moved to another position.

A Duplication mutation is when a chromosome is duplicated or replicated, which may end up resulting in multiple copies.

An Addition mutation is when more than one nucleotide base pairs with into a DNA sequence.

A Deletion mutation is when part of the DNA sequence gets lost when it is getting replicated.

A Substitution mutation is when a nucleotide is exchanged for a different nucleotide that may have a different sequence of amino acids.

A Point mutation is a change in 1 nucleotide base, it only changes 1 amino acid, even if it is changed the amino acid might still be the same CCC-->CCG both proline. A frameshift mutation is mutation that shifts the “reading” frame (3-nucleotide codon) of the genetic message by inserting or deleting a nucleotide, Every amino acid after that addition or deletion would be different.

The difference between Point mutation and Framshift mutation that in Frameshift mutation is that the frame of DNA is one way or another and in Point mutation the DNA frame don't change nor shift. In Frameshifts mutations the gene structures are changed and in Point mutation they aren't.

The most worst mutation there could be is the Nonsense mutation. It is the worst mutation because it has the stop codon o it will be leaving the amino acid chain incomplete.

Not all mutations are bad, many mutations are neutral, meaning that they have little or no impact on the expression of genes/proteins. Some can be harmful if it causes a change in the protein structure or the gene activity.

Different types of mutations.
Results of mutations.
Created By
Mely Juarez


Created with images by Libertas Academica - "Figure 1"

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