Nutrition is the process in which organisms obtain energy and nutrients from food to serve the body’s needs such as growth, metabolism, and repair. Nutrients are defined as food or biochemical substance that is broken down by the body to obtain energy.

Carbohydrates are nutrients that contain Carbon, Oxygen and Hydrogen. There are two types of carbohydrates: 1. Complex Carbohydrates 2. Simple Carbohydrates

Carbohydrates can provide the body with the most energy. 1 gram of carbohydrates produces 4 calories of energy. 80% of one's carbohydrate diet should be from complex carbohydrates because complex carbohydrates contain other nutrients and have a moderate to low glycemic index.

Fats are biochemical molecules made from glycerol and three fatty acids. There are two types of fats: 1. Saturated Fat and 2. Unsaturated Fat.

Fats are important sources of energy, provide insulation and protect body parts. 1 gram of fat produces 9 calories of energy. Unsaturated fats (monounsaturated & polyunsaturated) are better for humans health because compared to saturated fats, it can lower bad cholesterol levels, lower heart diseases and can also provide essential body fats.

Proteins are polymers made from chains of amino acid. There are two types of protein sources : 1. Complete protein sources and 2. Incomplete protein sources.

Proteins are considered the building blocks of life. 1 gram of protein produces 4 calories of energy. Protein food sources such as, meat, eggs etc contain 20 different amino acids and these food sources are called complete proteins. Complete proteins are good protein sources whereas incomplete proteins sources only contain 1 or 2 amino acids and are therefore not good sources of proteins.

Vitamins are organic compounds made from carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. There are two types of vitamins: 1. Fat soluble vitamins and 2. Water soluble vitamins.

Key vitamins include Vitamin A, B vitamins (thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid, biotin, vitamin B-6, vitamin B-12 and folate), Vitamin C, Vitamin D, Vitamin E and Vitamin K. Vitamins help the body perform tasks such as growth, cell development building of co enzymes etc. Fat soluble vitamins include vitamin A, D, E and K while water soluble vitamins include vitamin B and C. Excess of fat soluble vitamins can be toxic for the body.

Minerals are naturally occurring substances that humans intake through their diet. There are two main types of minerals in food: 1. Macro minerals and 2. Trace minerals

Minerals do not necessarily provide the body with energy, however, it does strengthen bones, activates enzymes, build muscles etc. Examples of macro minerals include calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sodium, potassium, and chloride. These are some of the key minerals that help with bodily functions and therefore, macro minerals are required in larger portions in the body. Examples of trace minerals include manganese, zinc and iron.

Water is a polar inorganic compound that is vital for all living organisms. Water helps carry nutrients to cells, removes wastes, responsible for viscosity of blood etc. It is recommended that humans have 2 litres of water per day.

Proper serving of each nutrients includes:

Follow this food pyramid to lead a healthy life!

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