Chapter 29 Neural Control

Central Nervous System

The Central Nervous System, CNS, has three main components, the brain, the spinal chord, and the optic nerves. The CNS is one of two major parts of the nervous system. It is the command center of the body. It controls thoughts, movements, and sensations throughout the entire body.

Peripheral Nervous System

The Peripheral Nervous System, PNS, is the second of the two major off- shoots of the main nervous sustem. The PNS is responsible for collecting information about organs, blood vessels, glands, and muscle.

Somatic Nervous System

The Somatic Nervous System, SNS, is an off-shoot of the PNS. The SNS deals with voulantary muscle movement. It deals specifically with skeletal muscle and its functions.

Autonomic Nervous System

The Autonomic Nervous System, ANS, is the second off-shoot of the PNS. It specifically deals with involuntary functions such as, breathing, heartbeat, and digestion.


The Parasympathetic Nervous System is an off-shoot of the ANS. It specifically deals with the heart rate and intestinal functions.


The Sympathetic Nerbpus System is the second off-shoot of the ANS. It deals with the releasing of hormones causing "adrenaline rushes".

Sensory Neuron

Sensory neurons are nerve cells in the nervous system responsible for converting external stimuli into internal electrical impulses.


Interneurons are nerve cells that transmit impulses to and from other neurons, especially as part of a reflex arc.

Motor Neuron

A motor neuron is a nerve cell whose cell body is located in the spinal cord and whose fiber projects outside the spinal cord to directly or indirectly control effector organs, mainly muscles and glands.

Neuromuscular Junction

A neuromuscular junction is a chemical synapse formed by the contact between a motor neuron and a muscle fiber. It is at the neuromuscular junction that a motor neuron is able to transmit a signal to the muscle fiber, causing muscle contraction.


Acetylcholine is an organic chemical that functions in the brain and body.

Norepinephrine and Epinephrine

Norepinephrine and Epinephrine is a hormone that is released by the adrenal medulla and by the sympathetic nerves and functions as a neurotransmitter. It is also used as a drug to raise blood pressure.


Synapse is a junction between two nerve cells, consisting of a minute gap across which impulses pass by diffusion of a neurotransmitter.

White Matter

White matter is composed of bundles of myelinated nerve cell projections, which connect various gray matter areas of the brain to each other, and carry nerve impulses between neurons.

Gray Matter

Grey matter is a major component of the central nervous system, consisting of neuronal cell bodies, neuropil, glial cells, synapses, and capillaries.

Cerebral Cortex

The cerebral cortex is the outer layer of the cerebrum, composed of folded gray matter and playing an important role in consciousness.

Lobes of the Brain

The lobes of the Brain are four main parts of the Brain, the frontal lobe, the parietal lobe, the temporal lobe, and the occipital lobe.

Limbic System

The limbic system includes the amygdala, hippocampus, thalamus, hypothalamus, basal ganglia, and cingulate gyrus. The amygdala is the emotion center of the brain, while the hippocampus plays an essential role in the formation of new memories about past experiences.

Created By
Miles Ventura

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