Creating its own weather
Because of its intensity, the Rodeo Fire started creating its own distinct weather system, Leech said, through its own plumes of smoke.
“It became a plume-dominated fire,” he said. “The smoke plumes rotate and wrap underneath – basically a convection column. It takes a tremendous amount of heat for that to happen. It doesn't happen under light fuels. It has to be heavy fuels, it has to be an intense fire, and because it was happening at 20-25 mph, it was beyond amazing."
Leech said more forest acres were burned on windy ways of 20 mph than on windy days of 30 mph.
“At 30 mph, it was enough to break those plumes apart,” he said.
These plumes reached about 40,000 feet into the air – high enough to be captured by satellite photography. Above the plumes, Leech said, were ice crystal formations – also known as paleocirrus clouds – to form a halo effect.
“When you see ice crystals forming on top of a cloud, no matter if it's a thunderstorm or a cloud of smoke, there's very cold air up above – and cold air is heavy – and it will come back down through the fire, through the (smoke) column at some point and hit the ground at 70, 80, 90, 100 mph. They would last between 5-15 minutes.”
When these columns of cold air collapsed and hit the ground at those speeds, Leech said it had the power to move an entire wall of fire, or even a finger of the fire, “in any direction it wants.”
“Generally speaking, these microburst would move the fire about 3-5 miles in a 10-15 minute period,” he said. “That's like trying to stop a runaway freight train with a ping-pong ball.”
Over the next few hours, more of these plume columns developed and the Rodeo Fire turned into a “pulsing plume-dominated fire,” in which several of these columns simultaneously build and collapse.
“We had five of these pulsing plumes, on average, over the top of the Rodeo Fire throughout the first day,” Leech said. “As the fire grew, so did the number of pulsing plumes.”
By 4 p.m. June 19, flame lengths were recorded at about 1,500 feet. During one harrowing helicopter ride around the fire meant to map its march, Leech said the flames reached as high as he and the pilot were flying – between 1,200 and 1,500 feet above the ground.
“The turbulence was enormous. I didn't have on my spurs and my seat belt was cinched another three notches – and it was all we could do to stay in the seat,” he said. “The pilot didn't like it any more than I did.”
Large burning gas balls exploded intermittently into the air “like an exploding fuel truck,” Leech said. He added that the fire was so hot, large rocks within the fire also exploded “like firecrackers going off.”
Leech said had the Rodeo Fire been wind-driven, it would have been much easier to manage.
“The thing about a plume-dominated fire is you have absolutely no idea where it's going, how fast it's going to get or what it's going to do,” he said. “They are absolutely, completely unpredictable. The nice thing about a wind-driven fire is, you can't do anything with it but at least you know where it's going.”
The aforementioned plume-domination effect from both the Rodeo and Chediski fires eventually pulled one into the other.
“Big fires pull small fires into it,” he said. “From 20 miles away, they’re pulling each other together.”
The Rodeo Fire burned so hot, Leech said, that it took out the root systems of any living thing in its path.
“Anything that had any mass to it, it just completely consumed within just a few minutes,” he said. “It melted T-posts (a rail steel fence post) in multiple places within the fire. Those are not easy to bend, let alone melt.”
Not all tree stands within the fire burned. According to Leech, many survived the initial wave of fire that swept through many areas, only to die because of the intense heat radiating from white ash material, mostly burned-out logs and old trees layering the forest floor.
“The fuel moisture in this material, usually about 18-20 inches in diameter, was in the 3-4 percent range. That's less than the humidity in your house in the middle of winter,” he said. “When it's very dry like that, they contribute to the flame in front of the fire, which increases the intensity, which causes plume domination.
“Also, the large diameter material takes a long time to burn out. The radiant heat that comes off that big material is enough to kill and cook pretty much anything. There might be one or two trees still standing out there, but I doubt it. If the fire didn't crown out, the radiant heat killed the rest.”
Lop and Scatter
In the years before the Rodeo-Chediski Fire, the Forest Service practiced what is known as “lop and scatter,” in which slash was cut to about 16 inches above the ground and left lying on the forest floor. The thought was the slash and other material left on the ground would rot and provide a sort of fertilizer for the healthy tree stands.
“But when the fire came through, (the U.S. Forest Service) found out that it didn't rot. The areas of high-intensity burns occurred through a lot of the thinned areas that were lopped and scattered. Lop and scatter doesn't work. You must follow it up with fire.
“(Prescribed burning) creates a lot of smoke and inconvenience for many people living in the area, but the alternative isn't very good.”
In the Chediski portion of the fire, Leech said there was one thing working in firefighters’ favor: The timber-laden area had seen a “fair amount” of logging, thinning and prescribed burning activity in previous years.
Leech said that if the Rodeo Fire reached Hop Canyon, another round of evacuations would be ordered. On June 22, 2002, it reached the canyon.
About 30,000 residents and “twice as many visitors” were evacuated from Show Low, Pinetop-Lakeside, Linden, Clay Springs and other areas. Heber/Overgaard on the west end of the Rodeo-Chediski Fire had already been evacuated, Leech said.
Many people fled to nearby communities that welcomed them with open arms. Residents in Holbrook, Snowflake, Taylor and Springerville all opened their doors to provide shelter for those escaping evacuated areas.
On June 25, the fire reached Cottonwood Canyon, the site of logging, thinning activity and previous prescribed burning.
“The closest the fire came to Show Low was Bison Ridge,” Leech said, “about 400 feet from getting in. Talk about luck. How on earth we did it, I don’t know.
“This fire almost made the Taylor-Snowflake area, believe it or not.”
With a major evacuation comes huge security issues.
“We had more police on the mountain during that week and a half or two weeks than there ever has been or ever will be,” Leech said. “Security is an issue because when you evacuate the people, you must provide for security of their property.”
Many in law enforcement, as well as the U.S. Forest Service, patrolled the evacuated municipalities, with some working their normal shifts, then volunteering to help keep the evacuated communities secured during their “off” hours.
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The ‘white’ in the White Mountains
Uncovered from historical U.S. Army cavalry documents from the 1890s state a unit was on patrol along the rim through the White Mountains. It tells of the forest and its condition at the time, stating that soldiers rode for three days “through a burned area” – most likely a recent forest fire – and adding, “there is no feed for our stock.”
“"Fires here burn incessantly, from early spring until snow. The air is always white with smoke,” the document states.
“There’s a reason why it’s called the ‘White Mountains,’” Leech said. “It’s not snow, it’s white air from the smoke all the time.”
Forest Management Legislation
The Rodeo-Chediski Fire helped kick-start new forest management laws that were enacted by Congress, including the Healthy Forests Restoration Act, which is intended to reduce the threat of destructive wildfires by allowing timber harvesting on protected national forest lands. President George W. Bush signed it into law in 2003.
Leech said there are three essential ingredients for a healthy forest: Rain, snow and fire.
“You know what happens if you take rain and snow out of the environment. It all goes downhill really fast,” he said.
Leech said fire history obtained from tree ring data in the White Mountains and Mogollon Rim, stretching from New Mexico to the Kaibab National Forest, shows fire intervals of three to five years.
“The only way you can get a fire to repeat – in some cases it's actually almost annually – that frequently is if you have a lot of grass cover,” he said. “At three- to five-year intervals, you're going to have very little fuel, an extremely healthy forest and extreme biodiversity; we're talking literally hundreds of different plant and animal species.”
Leech said taking fire out of the equation is “more insidious” in that the effects are not immediately shown.
“It doesn't show up today, it doesn't show up next year. It shows up 20, 30, 50, 100 years from now,” he said. “Fire suppression has been going on since the early 1920s, so we're just teetering at 100 years. You look at fire behavior in the forest, everything has, because of fuel loading, reached critical mass. It's not sustainable the way it is.”
“If we don't do something with it, it will burn.”
- June 18: Two fires near Cibecue are spotted on the Fort Apache Reservation in the afternoon. One is fully suppressed while the other burns between 100 and 300 acres by nightfall.
- June 19: Winds kick up. The Rodeo Fire – so named because it started near the Rodeo Fairgrounds – grows, burning from treetop to treetop among the ponderosa pines. Flames reach 300 feet high and temperatures at the head of the fire are 2,000 degrees. The six-mile-wide fire is moving at 1½-mph. Danger forces fire crews to pull off the frontlines by mid-morning. About 5,000 people in Clay Springs, Pinedale and Linden begin evacuating. Arizona Highway 260 closes between Heber and Show Low. The fire burns 10,000 acres by 5 p.m.
- June 20: By mid-morning, the Rodeo Fire expands to 30,000 acres, sending a smoke plume skyward that prompts some commercial pilots to radio into towers about possible thunderstorms. Authorities say the fire is arson-set. A second fire begins burning near Chediski Peak when a lost hiker ignites a signal fire. Crews from the Rodeo Fire are sent to build a line round the smaller Chediski Fire, which jumps the fire line and grows to 1,500 acres. The two fires are about 15 miles apart.
- Residents in Heber and Overgaard are ordered to evacuate. The Rodeo Fire consumes 85,000 acres by the end of the day, larger than the City of Mesa.
- June 21: Winds continue to fan the two blazes. The Rodeo Fire covers 150,000 acres by midday, and the Chediski Fire consumes 16,000 acres. By evening, the two are about eight miles apart and still at 0 percent containment. More than 8,000 people from six towns are evacuated. As many as 100 homeowners in Clay Springs, Pinedale and Linden defy fire officials' demands and sneak back to their houses. Some take four-wheel-drive vehicles to go around barriers, and saw down trees and bulldoze trenches to protect their homes.
- June 22: An undetermined number of structures in Overgaard and Heber burn. The fires combine to char more than 235,000 acres. There are conflicting reports about whether the Rodeo and Chediski fires have merged. Fire crews race to bulldoze two horizontal swaths south of Heber to contain the fires. They also try to build a containment line in Hop Canyon and perhaps set a prescribed burn to rob the Rodeo Fire of fuel. The efforts fail as the fires blow past the lines. Flames could be seen from the Juniper Ridge area of Show Low for the first time. By evening, the Rodeo Fire reaches Hop Canyon, triggering the ordered evacuation of Show Low's population of 7,700. Another 3,500 residents in Pinetop-Lakeside also get the orders to leave town.
- June 23: The fires char about 300,000 acres by noon. Preliminary figures indicate about 115 homes are destroyed by the two blazes; fire officials credit crews' around-the-clock efforts in saving 1,000 other structures from burning. Gov. Jane Dee Hull says declaration of the area as a federal disaster zone is imminent, which would free up federal aid to help the affected communities. She notes that the Apache-Sitgreaves National Forest is home to the largest pine groves in the country, then added, "I have no idea what's left of it."
- June 24: Diminished winds and cooler temperatures slow the fire's advance as firefighters develop a strategy they hope will keep the flames out of Show Low. Four Hotshot crews arrive and help fight the fire as it creeps within a half-mile of the historic town. About 100 firefighters choke the fire by burning a section of grass and meadow to the south, stopping the blaze from jumping US 60. That keeps the fire from running on and incinerating Hon-Dah to the east. The fire spreads across 331,000 acres, as firefighters slosh it with fire retardant, slap at it with shovelfuls of dirt, and try to head it off by carving firebreaks in two canyons near Show Low. President George W. Bush announces he will visit Arizona and tour the area damaged by the infernos. He also plans to declare the area a national disaster, freeing up millions of dollars in federal aid and loans.
- June 25: The Rodeo-Chediski Fire draws to within a quarter-mile of Show Low as President Bush arrives to buck up firefighters and evacuees. The fire muscles up to 375,000 acres, the size of Los Angeles, growing in several directions and making a run north toward Taylor. Fire officials worry most about its eastern edge, dangerously close to Show Low, and its southeastern portion, where it threatens to jump US 60 and open another front. In such a scenario, flames could run north toward Show Low and the Pinetop-Lakeside area.
- June 26: For the first time, there is containment: 5 percent. The containment is in the area of Clay Springs, Linden and Pinedale, communities already ravaged by the fire. Fire officials take local officials and media representatives on a tour of the Heber/Overgaard area, providing the first glimpse of the fire's devastation. Pinecrest Lakes, the hardest-hit area, lost 166 of 200 double-wide mobile homes. Dozens of log cabins lay in charred heaps. Authorities announce that a special federal task force has been set up in Whiteriver to find those responsible for triggering the Rodeo Fire. The White Mountain Apache Tribe announces a $6,000 reward for information leading to prosecution of a suspect, this on top of a $30,000 reward offered by the Mescalero Apache Tribe in New Mexico. The fire grows to 409,000 acres.
- June 27: The fire reaches 417,000 acres, but remains quiet near Show Low. The bigger worries lie near Forest Lakes southwest of Heber, as flames there flare up. Fire crews make more progress. Containment is listed at 10 percent.
- June 28: Firefighters continue their fight to prevent a tongue of the Rodeo-Chediski Fire from reaching hundreds of homes in the Forest Lakes subdivision, about 40 miles west of Show Low, as flames overrun a containment line. Crews set backfires to choke the oncoming blaze, bulldoze clear areas around the homes, spray fire retardant on structures and get ready to put down any spot fires caused by flying embers. Fire authorities complete their damage assessment in Heber and establish a hotline to check on the status of their homes. Navajo County officials announce that homeowners from Timberland Acres, Pinedale Estates and Clay Springs will get van tours of their neighborhoods, but will not be allowed to leave the vehicles. U.S. Sen. Jon Kyl, R-Ariz., visits Show Low and Springerville and talks up the need to change policies to allow for better forest management. He joins a chorus of politicians who blame hardcore environmentalists and their refusal to support any efforts to thin the forest. By nightfall, officials say they have 27 percent of the fire contained. More than 447,000 acres are burned, and at Forest Lakes, flames are within two miles of homes.
- June 29: Thousands of people forced to leave Show Low in a mass exodus begin returning to their homes As night falls, federal sources and White Mountain Apache Tribe officials confirm that an arrest has been made in the human-caused Rodeo Fire that started near Cibecue. The offender, the officials say, is a Bureau of Indian Affairs firefighter. At the end of the day, the fire has charred 455,000 acres and cost at least $17 million to fight.
- June 30: The suspect in the Rodeo Fire blaze is identified as Leonard Gregg, a 29-year-old contracted firefighter. Authorities charge him with two counts of setting fire to timber, underbrush, grass or other flammable material – the second relating to a separate one-acre fire that was quickly put out. The authorities reveal that boot prints at the fire scenes and an odd conversation Gregg had before the Rodeo Fire broke out helped trip him. Gregg allegedly told a woman he was visiting that he had to go home because he and other firefighters would be summoned to fight a blaze in the Rodeo Grounds area – before the Rodeo Fire had been reported. According to a statement of probable cause filed by a BIA agent, Gregg admitted to setting the fires because he was angry at his parents' drinking problems. He also admitted that he expected to make money from the fires given his seasonal employment with the BIA. At a preliminary hearing in federal court, Gregg tries to apologize publicly. "Can I say I'm sorry for what I did," he asked federal Magistrate Stephen Verkamp. The magistrate cuts him off, saying Gregg shouldn't make any admission of guilt at the hearing. Meanwhile, firefighters gain more of an upper hand against the blaze, even as it grows to 464,000 acres: Containment is up to 45 percent and fire lines at Forest Lakes hold for a second day.
Spark by Pia Wyer