The Bill of Rights are the first 10 edits to the Constitution. These specific amendments involved the rights and liberties of citizens, as well as the limits of governmental power over them, earning itself the name, "Bill of Rights". There were two major groups that disagreed about whether or not a Bill of Rights should've existed. They were called the Federalists and the Anti-Federalists.
The Federalists and Anti-Federalists were huge rivals for one main reason: the Federalists wanted a strong government because of the previous tension and stuff of the American Revolution. The Anti-Federalists, on the other hand, wanted power to instead remain in the hands of state and local governments because they didn't want the government to get too power-hungry. As you may have guessed from their principles, the Anti-Federalists thought the Constitution needed a 'bill of rights' for citizens to keep their individual liberty. Anyway, back to the Bill of Rights.
James Madison, the writer of the Bill of Rights, was strongly influenced and inspired by George Mason, who wrote the Virginia Declaration of Rights. The House of Representatives approved 17 amendments, and the Senate approved 12 out of those. Then those 12 were sent to the states. Finally, the states approved 10 of them. These are the first 10 Amendments.
Amendment I- Citizens have freedom of religion and speech.
Amendment II- Citizens have the right to bear arms (such as guns).
Amendment III- The government may not, by any means, force citizens to quarter soldiers in their home.
Amendment IV- No citizen may perform any unreasonable searches of another's property.
Amendment V- This states that citizens may invoke this Amendment in court when somebody is interrogating them and they don't want to say something that could be used against themselves.
Amendment VI- Citizens may have a speedy and fair trial in court.
Amendment VII- This gives citizens a right to trial by jury when they are sued for over 20$. This means that their attorney will get to pick around 12 people to make a jury out of around 60 total jurors. Those 12 people will judge whether the citizen is guilty or innocent.
Amendment VIII- Citizens are protected from cruel and unusual punishment.
Amendment IX- Citizens may have rights not listed in the Constitution.
Amendment X- Powers not given to the government belong to the states/people.