Part 1: Modernism
Life was becoming more urban as cities grew. It was growing from a mix of capitalism and industrialization. People believed in progress and optimism, because of these and with the help of industrialization new technologies were being made like railroads and indoor plumbing. The middle class gained many participants. Since many jobs followed under the capitalism guidelines, people earned wages, and with wages, they received disposable income. Middle Class started to enjoy leisure activities. Artists strayed away from religion and painted more secular. Majority of people didn’t let religion dictate their standards, values, and subject matter. But they did not renounce religion.
Part 2: Romanticism
Romantics believe in the idea of traditional values and favored them compared to the new progressive, innovative ideas. Romantics believed in trading a tree for a factory, they loved nature and opposed and progressive invention that led the ways to the future. Romantics also valued medieval times, and integrated it in many arts.
Part 3: Romantic
The Picture with the two boats shows a tug boat pulling in an old naval ship back into harbor for its last sailing is by J.M.W. Turner . This is a romantic picture because the tug boat appears to be dirty and ugly and the naval ship looks majestic and huge. Romantics wanted to say through this picture that ugly progressivism is taking over beautiful pasts.
Part 4: Romantic
Fryderyk Chopin was a polish romantic composer. His music was virtuousic and simultaneously deeply emotional. Chopin never named his pieces other than the general form, ex: “Revolutionary” or “Raindrop”. Many of his songs don’t have just one emotion, listeners are bombarded with mixtures of emotions but none of them are very specific.
Part 5: Romantic
John Keats was in the medical field in late teens, however he was enthusiastic in this profession. He started getting engrossed in literature and quit being the medical field. The first couple of books and got terribly rude criticism. His health started to go down. Toward the end of his life, he published two other books, “ Nightingale” and “The Grecian Urn” which turned out to be huge successes.
Part 6: Realist and Materialist
Darwinian Biology- Charles Darwin has done multiple studies that dealt with natural selection, the struggle for species to survive, and the introduction of new species over time. His studies challenged the church with natural science around life and where it came from. It also challenge the idea that man is the center, Darwinism argues that man came rather recent. His most popular usage of natural selection was Social Darwinism. It put natural selection into the social order(classes) and human interaction (contemporary and international).
Part 7 :Realist and Materialist
Leo Tolstoy- When he was a child his parents passed and relatives took care of him. He flopped his education and joined the army. Afterwards he got married and started hi famous legacy as an author. He published 4 world read books: “War and Peace”, “Anna Karenina”, “ The Death of Ivan Ilych”, and “What is Art”. These famous books revolve around one idea. Don’t hate what's on the outside, love what's on the inside. As a great writer, he knew that books had to be entertaining, otherwise people wouldn't read them. However he knew that it also had to be a path to maturity and kindness to guide people to better themselves.
Part 8: Realist and Materialist
Jean-Francois Millet, The Gleaners - Some interesting points about this painting is that the only rough patches of paint stroke is made on the three women hard at work. These women are obviously not part of the main operation that is taking place in the background, they are basically beggars, picking up scraps.When Millet submitted to the Salon, many people opposed of this painting, and even were scared because what would happen if people under this circumstance were radicalized and mobilized like they were in the Revolution of 1848.
Part 9: Relativism in values and the loss of confidence in the objectivity of knowledge
Friedrich Nietzsche had four philosophy rules and sayings. 1. “Own up to Envy”. He believed that envy could be a useful tool to get people the life that they wanted to get. 2.” Don’t be a Christian” He resented Christianity for protecting people from their Envy. He also believed that Christianity made a virtue of their cowardice. Christians had wished to enjoy the ingredients of fulfilled life, but had been incompetent to get them. 3. “Never drink alcohol” He thought that Christianity and alcohol are the two greatest narcotics. He hated alcohol because it numbed pain and reassured everything was "alright" when it wasn’t. 4. “God is dead” Nietzsche thought that religious beliefs were false but very beneficial. He figured that religious beliefs should be replaced with culture, like arts and philosophy.
Part 10: Impressionism
“The Dance Class” This painting is all about the new urban world that the inner city society is living in.The painting depicts a bunch of young ballerinas who are extremely ungainly. /They act like normal humans, which is why this picture is considered Impressionist. There is a woman biting her nails and another girl helping someone else out with her tutu. They aren't majestic compared to the other paintings that occurred around the same time. “This painting is not a self-contained, clear narrative that would of been presented at the Salon.
Part 11: Post-Impressionist
In Van Gogh’s painting “The Bedroom”, it’s all about color. The colors of the painting makes up the structural and emotional parts of the painting. His painting can be described as childish, with one example being the nightstand in the middle of the painting, it has blue outlines and makes no sense on the dimensional scale. Van Gogh’s painting style differs from the sophisticated style of the painters of Paris. His style is more authentic because he had experiences of the room and he puts those right into the painting.
Take this awesome short quiz! :