Brugia Malayi - mostly found in. Asia(South China,India,Indonesia,Thailand,Vietnam.They are transmitted by Mansonia Mosquitoes.
Wuchereria BancroftI - it was named after by physician Otto Wuchereria and parasitologist Joseph Bancrofti. They are transmitted through Anopheles mosquitoes,
Brugia Timori - they are commonly found in Islands of Timor and are transmitted through Anopheles Barbirostris.
Second line defense - the eosinophils and mast cells (produces cytokines which attracts other cells of immune system to the site of the wound for tissue repair) causes vasodilation and increase permeability of the blood vessels leading to increased blood flow and fluid leakage.Common symptoms are swelling,chill and sweating.
HUMORAL IMMUNE RESPONSE - Antigen bond to the B lymphocytes receptors and they divide and activates through clonal selection.Later they differentiate into plasma cells and memory B cells. Plasma cells produces antibody IgE, IgG4,IgG1 that binds to the foreign antigens and tags it for identification by the helper T cells. Memory B cells are for immunological memory for immune response during the second invasion of the the microbes.
CELL MEDIATED IMMUNE RESPONSE - First lymphocyte to be activated is T lymphocyte which is produced in the thymus .They are of 2 common types called cytotoxic T cells ( kills infected cells) and helper T cells or CD4 ( activates macrophage, B lymphocytes and cytotoxic T cells). Dendritic cells (class 2 MHC or the professional antigen presenting cell) invade the microbes through phagocytosis and move to the peripheral lymphoid organs( thymus,spleen,tonsils,lymph nodes). There they act as antigen presenting cell to the helper T cells which releases cytokines for the rapid division of B cells through clonal selection which then differentiate into plasma cells and memory B cells. Helper T cells recognize the foreign antigen tagged by the antibodies and activates cytotoxic T cells by releasing cytokines IL-4,IL -5, IL-9, IL -10, IL-11, IL-12. Once activated T cells migrate to the cite of infection and kills the microbes tagged by the antibodies and hence fight infection along with other phagocytic cells.
Diethyl Carbamazine, combination of Albendazole and Ivermectin which causes paralysis of microfilariae and prevent migration.
Other methods - bed rest, Elevation of affected limbs, compression bandages( to bring down the swelling).