1945 - 1959
Ho Chin Minh
- Created the Viet Minh which seized the northern city of Hanoi and declared a Democratic State of Vietnam at 1945
- People's Republic of China was established on October 1, 1949
- Mao made the decision to send the People's Volunteer Army (PVA), a special unit of the People's Liberation Army, into the war in Korea and fight as well as to reinforce the armed forces of North Korea, the Korean People's Army, which had been in full retreat.
- As the Chairman of the CPC's Central Military Commission (CMC), he was also the Supreme Commander in Chief of the PLA and the People's Republic and Chairman of the ruling CPC.
Dwight D. Eisenhower
- Presidents of the United States from 1953 - 1961
- Eisenhower articulated the domino theory in his outlook towards communism in Southeast Asia and also in Central America.
- He believed that if the communists were allowed to prevail in Vietnam, this would cause a succession of countries to fall to communism, from Laos through Malaysia and Indonesia ultimately to India. Likewise, the fall of Guatemala would end with the fall of neighboring Mexico.
- the guerrilla force that, with the support of the North Vietnamese Army, fought against South Vietnam (late 1950s–1975) and the United States (early 1960s–1973).
- the Viet Cong became in 1960 the military arm of the National Liberation Front (NLF).
- In 1969 the NLF joined other groups in the areas of South Vietnam that were controlled by the Viet Cong to form the Provisional Revolutionary Government (PRG)
- Were sent to Vietnam to monitor the activities of the Vietnamese and their government
- Were sent to Vietnam because Eisenhower did not want to send troops down there until the advisers recognize that the government was communist
A term coined by President that states that a political event in one country will cause similar events in neighboring countries, like a falling domino causing an entire row of upended dominoes to fall.
The Geneva Accords was a settlement which brought about an end to the First Indochina War. A ceasefire was signed and France agreed to withdraw its troops from the region. French Indochina was split into three countries which one section being Vietnam. Vietnam was to be temporarily divided along the 17th Parallel until elections could be held to unite the country. These elections were never held; following repeated refusals to hold nationwide elections by Ngo Dinh Diem and his declaration of leadership of a new state, South Vietnam, the Vietminh established a communist state in the North led by Ho Chi Minh.
- Dwight D. Eisenhower's doctors say that he is healthy enough to seek another term at the White House
- Eisenhower say he will seek re-election as president.
Ngo Dinh Diem
- Ngo Dinh Diem consolidated his power as the President of South Vietnam.
- He declined to have a national election to unify the country as called for in the Geneva Accords.
- Ngô Dình Diem dealt strongly with another group not among his supporters: the approximately 1,000,000 Chinese-identified people of Vietnam, the Hoa, who dominated much of the economy. Diem issued an executive order which barred "foreigners", including Chinese, from 11 kinds of businesses, and demanded the half-million Vietnamese-born Hoa men, "Vietnamize", including changing their names to a Vietnamese form.
Vice President Richard Nixon visited South Vietnam. He gave Diem a letter from President Eisenhower stating that the United States looked forward to many years of partnership with South Vietnam.[ In a speech in the Vietnamese constituent assembly, Nixon said that "the march of Communism has been halted
French Indochina, officially known as the Indochinese Union after 1887 and the Indochinese Federation after 1947, was a grouping of French colonial territories in Southeast Asia but was taken down after the war and split into three sections which one being Vietnam
1961 - 1963
- U.S. Ambassador to South Vietnam Elbridge Durbrow forwarded a counterinsurgency plan for South Vietnam to the State Department in Washington. The plan provided for an increase in the size of the South Vietnamese Army (ARVN) from 150,000 to 170,000 to be financed by the United States,
- an increase in the size of the Civil Guard from about 50,000 to 68,000 to be partially financed by the United States,
- a number of administrative and economic reforms to be accomplished by the Diem government.
In 1965, the United States rapidly increased its military forces in South Vietnam, prompted by the realization that the South Vietnamese government was losing the Vietnam War as the communist-dominated Viet Cong gained influence over much of the population in rural areas of the country.
North Vietnam also rapidly increased its infiltration of men and supplies to combat South Vietnam and the U.S. North Vietnam and the insurgent Viet Cong sought to unite the two sections of the country.
South Vietnam was in bad shape at this time in the war so they ask America to bring in more troops so that they would be completely invaded by North Vietnam
Guerrilla warfare is a form of irregular warfare in which a small group of combatants such as paramilitary personnel, armed civilians, or irregulars use military tactics including ambushes, sabotage, raids, petty warfare, hit-and-run tactics, and mobility to fight a larger and less-mobile traditional military.
Agent Orange is a herbicide and defoliant chemical. It is widely known for its use by the U.S. military as part of its herbicidal warfare program, Operation Ranch Hand,during the Vietnam War from 1961 to 1971. It was a mixture of equal parts of two herbicides, 2,4,5-T and 2,4-D. In addition to its damaging environmental effects, the chemical has caused major health problems for many individuals who were exposed.
U.S. troops used a substance known as napalm from about 1965 to 1972 in the Vietnam War; napalm is a mixture of plastic polystyrene, hydrocarbon benzene, and gasoline. This mixture creates a jelly-like substance that, when ignited, sticks to practically anything and burns up to ten minutes. The effects of napalm on the human body are unbearably painful and almost always cause death among its victims.
The Tet Offensive was one of the largest military campaigns of the Vietnam War, launched on January 30, 1968, by forces of the Viet Cong and North Vietnamese People's Army of Vietnam against the forces of the South Vietnamese Army of the Republic of Vietnam, the United States Armed Forces, and their allies. It was a campaign of surprise attacks against military and civilian command and control centers throughout South Vietnam
1969 - 1975
- US troop numbers peaked in 1969 with President Johnson approving an increased maximum number of US troops in Vietnam at 549,500.
- President Johnson announces a total halt to US bombing in North Vietnam.
North and South Vietnam
1973 in the Vietnam War began with a peace agreement, the Paris Peace Accords, signed by the United States and South Vietnam on one side of the Vietnam War and communist North Vietnam and the insurgent Viet Cong on the other. Although honored in some respects, the peace agreement was violated by both North and South Vietnam as the struggle for power and control of territory in South Vietnam continued. North Vietnam released all American prisoners of war and the United States completed its military withdrawal from South Vietnam.
U.S. Congressional opposition to the Vietnam War forced the U.S. to cease bombing communist forces in Cambodia in August and in November Congress adopted the War Powers Resolution which limited the U.S. President's authority to wage war. By this time President Nixon had to resign due to the Watergate Scandal which left the United States in chaos unable to do much for the war
1975 marked the end of the Vietnam War. After the South Vietnamese army folded under NVA pressure the Fall of Saigon was inevitable. The US started evacuating its citizens but to not alarm the South Vietnamese they left under a number of pretexts including Operation Babylift. On April 30, 1975 Saigon fell and the Vietnam War was over. Vietnam was completely under communist rule after North Korea was able to take over the capital of South Korea