The Ocean By: Larissa Pesina

"Human kidneys can only make urine that is less salty than salt water. Therefore, to get rid of all the excess salt taken in by drinking seawater, you have to urinate more water than you drank. Eventually, you die of dehydration even as you become thirstier."
"Why are oceans important? Oceans are the lifeblood of planet Earth and humankind. They flow over nearly three-quarters of our planet, and hold 97% of the planet's water. They produce more than half of the oxygen in the atmosphere, and absorb the most carbon from it."
"Ocean currents act much like a conveyer belt, transporting warm water and precipitation from the equator toward the poles and cold water from the poles back to the tropics. Thus, currents regulate global climate, helping to counteract the uneven distribution of solar radiation reaching Earth's surface"
"Epipelagic Zone - The surface layer of the ocean is known as the epipelagic zone and extends from the surface to 200 meters (656 feet). It is also known as the sunlight zone because this is where most of the visible light exists. With the light come heat. This heat is responsible for the wide range of temperatures that occur in this zone. Mesopelagic Zone - Below the epipelagic zone is the mesopelagic zone, extending from 200 meters (656 feet) to 1,000 meters (3,281 feet). The mesopelagic zone is sometimes referred to as the twilight zone or the midwater zone. The light that penetrates to this depth is extremely faint. It is in this zone that we begin to see the twinkling lights of bioluminescent creatures. A great diversity of strange and bizarre fishes can be found here. Bathypelagic Zone - The next layer is called the bathypelagic zone. It is sometimes referred to as the midnight zone or the dark zone. This zone extends from 1,000 meters (3,281 feet) down to 4,000 meters (13,124 feet). Here the only visible light is that produced by the creatures themselves. The water pressure at this depth is immense, reaching 5,850 pounds per square inch. In spite of the pressure, a surprisingly large number of creatures can be found here. Sperm whales can dive down to this level in search of food. Most of the animals that live at these depths are black or red in color due to the lack of light. Abyssopelagic Zone - The next layer is called the abyssopelagic zone, also known as the abyssal zone or simply as the abyss. It extends from 4,000 meters (13,124 feet) to 6,000 meters (19,686 feet). The name comes from a Greek word meaning "no bottom". The water temperature is near freezing, and there is no light at all. Very few creatures can be found at these crushing depths. Most of these are invertebrates such as basket stars and tiny squids. Three-quarters of the ocean floor lies within this zone. The deepest fish ever discovered was found in the Puerto Rico Trench at a depth of 27,460 feet (8,372 meters). Hadalpelagic Zone - Beyond the abyssopelagic zone lies the forbidding hadalpelagic zone. This layer extends from 6,000 meters (19,686 feet) to the bottom of the deepest parts of the ocean. These areas are mostly found in deep water trenches and canyons. The deepest point in the ocean is located in the Mariana Trench off the coast of Japan at 35,797 feet (10,911 meters). The temperature of the water is just above freezing, and the pressure is an incredible eight tons per square inch. That is approximately the weight of 48 Boeing 747 jets. In spite of the pressure and temperature, life can still be found here. Invertebrates such as starfish and tube worms can thrive at these depths." › The Sea › Wonders of the Sea › Deep Sea Creatures
"At sea level, the air that surrounds us presses down on our bodies at 14.5 pounds per square inch. You don't feel it because the fluids in your body are pushing outward with the same force. Dive down into the ocean even a few feet, though, and a noticeable change occurs. You can feel an increase of pressure on your eardrums. This is due to an increase in hydrostatic pressure, the force per unit area exerted by a liquid on an object. The deeper you go under the sea, the greater the pressure of the water pushing down on you. For every 33 feet (10.06 meters) you go down, the pressure increases by 14.5 psi. In the deepest ocean, the pressure is equivalent to the weight of an elephant balanced on a postage stamp, or the equivalent of one person trying to support 50 jumbo jets! Many animals that live in the sea have no trouble at all with high pressure. Whales, for instance, can withstand dramatic pressure changes because their bodies are more flexible. Their ribs are bound by loose, bendable cartilage, which allows the rib cage to collapse at pressures that would easily snap our bones. A whale's lungs can also collapse safely under pressure, which keeps them from rupturing. This allows sperm whales to hunt for giant squid at depths of 7,000 feet or more." › Ocean Facts
"It provides a treasured source of recreation for humans. It is mined for minerals (salt, sand, gravel, and some manganese, copper, nickel, iron, and cobalt can be found in the deep sea) and drilled for crude oil. The ocean plays a critical role in removing carbon from the atmosphere and providing oxygen."


Created with images by Pexels - "carapace marine turtle ocean" • Pok_Rie - "wave water ocean" • ejaugsburg - "environmental protection nature conservation ecology" • Hans - "clouds cloud formations sky" • mypubliclands - "California Coastal NM" • Fotoworkshop4You - "leaf hoarfrost frozen" • Schoggimousse - "underwater fish atlantis"

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