DIFFERENT KINDS OF ROCKS
The Rock Cycle is a group of changes. Igneous rock can change into sedimentary rock or into metamorphic rock. Sedimentary rock can change into metamorphic rock or into igneous rock. Metamorphic rock can change into igneous or sedimentary rock.
HOW TO TELL THE DIFFERENCE OF ROCKS
Metamorphic rocks are usually found deep underground mountains, in zones radiating from intrusions of magma underground, on glaciated terrain after transportation by ice, or on the surface of eroded mountains.
Slate is a fine-grained, foliated metamorphic rock that is created by the alteration of shale or mudstone by low-grade regional metamorphism.
Gneiss is a foliated metamorphic rock identified by its bands and lenses of varying composition, while other bands contain granular minerals with an interlocking texture. Gneiss is usually formed by regional metamorphism at convergent plate boundaries.
Marble a metamorphic rock that forms when limestone is subjected to the heat and pressure of metamorphismMost marble forms at convergent plate boundaries where large areas of Earth's crust are exposed to regional metamorphism. Some marble also forms by contact metamorphism when a hot magma body heats adjacent limestone or dolostone.
Sedimentary rocks are found covering a majority of the Earth's upper crust. Formed from the deposition of mud and sand that is buried and compressed to form solid rock, sedimentary rocks usually begin their life underwater, rising to the Earth's surface as the waters dry up.
Flint is a hard, tough chemical or biochemical sedimentary rock that breaks with a conchoidal fracture. It is a form of microcrystalline quartz that is typically called “chert” by geologists. It often forms as nodules in sedimentary rocks such as chalk and marine limestones.
Coal is an organic sedimentary rock that forms from the accumulation and preservation of plant materials, usually in a swamp environment. Coal is a combustible rock and, along with oil and natural gas, it is one of the three most important fossil fuels. Coal forms from the accumulation of plant debris, usually in a swamp environment.
Conglomerate forms where sediments of rounded clasts at least two millimeters in diameter accumulate. It takes a strong water current to transport and shape particles this large. Conglomerate is a clastic sedimentary rock.
Igneous rock is formed through the cooling and solidification of magma or lava. Igneous rock may form with or without crystallization, either below the surface as intrusive (plutonic) rocks or on the surface as extrusive (volcanic) rocks.
Granite is a light-colored igneous rock with grains large enough to be visible with the unaided eye. It forms from the slow crystallization of magma below Earth's surface.
Diorite is the name used for a group of coarse-grained igneous rocks with a composition between that of granite and basalt. It usually occurs as large intrusions, dikes, and sills within continental crust. These often form above a convergent plate boundary where an oceanic plate subducts beneath a continental plate.
Basalt is a dark-colored, fine-grained, igneous rock composed mainly of plagioclase and pyroxene minerals. It most commonly forms as an extrusive rock, such as a lava flow, but can also form in small intrusive bodies, such as an igneous dike or a thin sill.